System Notes 7G01   Main

Last revision: December 26, 2023


Pavlicek System


  by Richard Pavlicek

Contents

1 General Approach11 Opening Bids
21 Notrump Structure31 Stayman51 Jacoby Transfer
71 Minor Suit Stayman81 Minor Suit Transfers91 Three Diamonds Majors
101 Splinter Responses111 Texas Transfer121 Notrump Interference
141 Opening One of Suit151 Rebids by Opener161 Rebids by Responder
171 Opener’s Third Bid191 Responder’s Third Bid201 Rebids after 1 N Rebid
211 Rebids after 2 N Rebid221 Notrump Responses to Minor231 One Notrump Forcing
251 Two over One of Major261 Two Clubs over One Diamond271 Inverted Minor Raises
281 Weak Jump Shifts291 Two Notrump Response301 Major Suit Game Tries
311 Opener’s Reverse Bid321 Fourth Suit Bids331 Passed Hand Changes
341 Two-Way Reverse Drury
361 Competitive One of Suit371 After Takeout Double381 After Suit Overcall
401 After Jump Suit Overcall421 After Two-Suited Overcall431 After One Notrump Overcall
441 Competitive Doubles451 Cooperative Doubles461 Opener’s Competitive Rebids
471 Competitive Limit Style
481 Higher Opening Bids491 Two Club Opening521 Weak Two Bids
541 Preemptive Openings561 Three Notrump Opening
571 Defense to One of Suit581 Takeout Doubles601 Suit Overcalls
611 Weak Jump Overcalls621 Two-Suited Overcalls641 Three-Level Cue Overcall
651 Balancing Actions661 After Two Enemy Bids671 Additional Agreements
681 Other Defensive Bidding691 Defense to Notrump Openings721 Defense to Weak Openings
741 Defense to Artificial Openings751 Defense to Transfer Bids761 Junkyard Defense
771 Lead-Directing Doubles781 Runout Defense
791 Slam Bidding Methods801 General Approach811 Gerber
821 Four Notrump Meanings831 Blackwood851 Super Gerber
871 Trump Asking Bid881 Voluntary Bid of Five891 Five Notrump Meanings
901 Defensive Carding911 Notrump Opening Leads921 Suit Opening Leads
931 Leads After Trick One941 Honor Signals951 Count Signals
961 Suit Preference Signals971 Trump Signal

General Approach

Strength requirements, unless specifically stated as HCP, are presumed to be HCP for natural notrump bids, or total points (distributional values included) for all other bids. Unusual treatments are denoted with a bullet.

Abbreviations used:1
F
AF
DJ
NF
I
GF
ST






forcing
artificial force
double jump
nonforcing
invitational
game forcing
slam try

Opening Bids

Basic approach is five-card majors, strong notrumps and weak two-bids. When opening a minor with 3-3, bid the stronger unless the difference is close, then 1 C; similarly with 4-4, although rebid considerations may be a factor.

Opening bids:11
1 C 1 D
1 H 1 S
1 N
2 C
2 D 2 H 2 S
2 N
3+ suit
3 N
4 N 5 N







 •
 •
13-22, 3+ cards
13-22, 5+ cards
15-17, balanced
23+, AF
5-10 HCP, weak two-bid
20-22, balanced
weak
ace ask, good 1-suiter, 9+ tricks, F
minors, extreme shape

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

Notrump Structure

An opening bid of 1 N shows 15-17 HCP and balanced distribution. Hands with a 5 card major or off-shape pattern are acceptable if each doubleton contains an ace, king or queen, or per judgment.

1 NP?21

2 C
2 D 2 H
2 S
2 N 3 C
3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N 4 S
4 C
4 D 4 H




 •
 •


Stayman
Jacoby transfer
minor-suit Stayman
minor-suit transfer
5-5 majors
splinter, 3-suited ST
sign-off
Gerber
Texas transfer

An opening bid of 2 N shows 20-22 HCP, similar in nature to 1 N.

2 NP?22

3 C
3 D 3 H
3 S
Higher



Stayman
Jacoby transfer
minor-suit Stayman
same as #21

Stayman

After a 1 N or 2 N opening, cheapest club bid is Stayman. No HCP are promised, nor is the presence of a major suit.

1 N
?
P2 CPanalogous for 2 N opening31

2 D
2 H
2 S


no 4+ card major
4+ hearts, may have 4 spades
4+ spades, denies 4 hearts

1 N
2 D
P
P
2 C
?
P32

2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
Any game
4 C 4 D




 •
 •

 •
weak, at least 4-4 majors or 3=4=1=5
sign-off
does not imply major, I
5+ cards, GF
5+ spades, 4 hearts, GF
5+ hearts, 4 spades, GF
sign-off
splinter, 3-suited ST

Note that Gerber and transfer bids do not apply immediately after Stayman.

2 N
3 D
P
P
3 C
?
P33

3 H
3 S
Any game
4 C 4 D
 •
 •

5+ spades, 4+ hearts, GF
5+ hearts, 4 spades, GF
sign-off
5+ cards, ST

1 N
2 H
P
P
2 C
?
Panalogous for 2 S rebid34

2 S
2 N 3 H
3 C 3 D
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H 5 C 5 D
 •


 •

 •
4 spades (checkback), F
no interest in spades, I
5+ cards, 4 spades, GF
agrees hearts, ST
4 spades, game sign-off
splinter, ST
sign-off

2 N
3 H
P
P
3 C
?
P35

3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H 5 C 5 D
 •


agrees hearts, ST
4 spades, game sign-off
5+ cards, ST
sign-off

2 N
3 H
?
P
P
3 C
4 C
P
P
analogous for 4 D36

4 D
4 H*
4 S
4 N
5 C

 •


strength, 3+ clubs
4-4 majors
super Gerber
no club fit or wrong cards, NF
3+ clubs, discourages slam

*then 4 S (NF) confirms a 4-4 fit

2 N
3 S
P
P
3 C
?
P37

3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S 5 C 5 D


 •
4 hearts, game sign-off
5+ cards, ST
agrees spades, ST
sign-off

Smolen follow-up

1 N
2 D
3 N
P
P
P
2 C
3 H
?
P
P
38

4 C 4 D
4 H

3 cards, ST
transfer to 4 S

1 N
2 D
3 N
P
P
P
2 C
3 S
?
P
P
39

4 C
4 D

3 cards, ST
transfer to 4 H

2 N
3 D
3 N
P
P
P
3 C
3 H
?
P
P
40

4 C
4 D
4 H


3 cards, ST
transfer to 4 H (5-5 majors)
transfer to 4 S

2 N
3 D
3 N
P
P
P
3 C
3 S
?
P
P
41

4 C
4 D

3 cards, ST
transfer to 4 H

After interference

1 N
?
P2 CXanalogous for 2 N opening42

Rdbl
Pass
2 D
2 H 2 S



4+ strong clubs
4 clubs, no major
4+ diamonds, no major
unchanged

After Stayman is doubled, responder may pass, redouble or bid 2 D to play; else rebid normally, except 3 C (GF) shows a stiff or worthless doubleton.

If either opponents bids, all doubles by opener or responder are penalty.

Jacoby Transfer

After a 1 N or 2 N opening the cheapest diamond bid shows at least 5 hearts, and the cheapest heart bid shows at least 5 spades. Opener typically completes the transfer by bidding the shown major.

1 N
2 H
P
P
2 D
?
P51

2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 N
3 S
4 C 4 D
4 H
 •




 •

5-5 majors, I (NF)
5 hearts, I
4+ cards, GF
6+ hearts (rare 5), I
5 hearts (rare 6), choice of game
agrees hearts, ST
self-splinter, agrees hearts, ST
agrees hearts, slam I (NF)

1 N
2 S
P
P
2 H
?
P52

3 H
4 C 4 D 4 H
Other
 •

agrees spades, ST
self-splinter, agrees spades, ST
analogous to #51

2 N
3 H
P
P
3 D
?
P53

3 S
4 C 4 D
4 H
3 N
 •


agrees hearts, ST
4+ cards, ST
agrees hearts, slam I (NF)
5 hearts (rare 6), choice of game

2 N
3 S
P
P
3 H
?
P54

4 H
Other
 •
agrees spades, ST
analogous to #53

Note that responder’s rebid of 3 or 4 in the unshown major artificially agrees the major shown, not only after Jacoby but also after Stayman.

Opener’s third bid

1 N
2 H
?
P
P
2 D
3 C
P
P
analogous for all major-minor 2-suiters55

3 D 3 S*
3 H
3 N
4 C 4 H
4 S




strength, implies club fit
heart fit
no fit or wrong cards
good fit, right cards
super Gerber

*not a shown suit for super Gerber rule

2 N
3 H
?
P
P
3 D
4 C
P
P
analogous for all major-minor 2-suiters56

4 D
4 H
4 S
4 N



strength, implies club fit
heart fit
super Gerber
no fit or wrong cards

Responder’s third bid

1 N
2 H
3 D
P
P
P
2 D
3 C
?
P
P
analogous for similar sequences57

3 H
3 S
3 N 4 H 5 C
4 C
4 D
4 S





6+ hearts or strong 5
ace or shortness
no slam interest, NF
5-5, GF
ace or king
super Gerber

Note that if responder bids a suit he has not shown it is super Gerber if 4 of the other major, ace or king if opener showed strength, else ace or shortness.

2 N
3 H
4 D
P
P
P
3 D
4 C
?
P
P
analogous for similar sequences58

4 H 5 C
4 S
4 N


no slam interest, NF
super Gerber
natural, NF

Transfer bypass

Opener may jump in responder’s major to show an exceptional fit and maximum values, typically a hand that revalues to greater than the indicated range. The meaning of responder’s rebids are then changed:

1 N
3 H
P
P
2 D
?
Panalogous for 2 H (spade transfer)59

3 S 4 C 4 D
3 N
4 H
4 N

 •

self-splinter, ST
no splinter, ST (F)
sign-off
Blackwood

2 N
4 H
P
P
3 D
?
Panalogous for 3 H (spade transfer)60

4 S 5 C 5 D
4 N
5 H


ace or void, ST
Blackwood
no ace or void, slam I

After interference

If an opponent interferes after the transfer, rebids are adjusted to obtain a penalty or put the active opponent on lead. Same principles apply after a 2 N opening.

1 N
?
P2 DXanalogous for 2 H doubled61

Pass
Rdbl
2 H
3 D
3 H




normal action
4+ strong diamonds, suggests to play
fit, happy with diamond lead
normal bypass
bypass, happy with diamond lead

1 N
P
P
P
2 D
?
Xanalogous for 2 H doubled62

Rdbl
2 H
3 D
Other



penalty suggestion, opener pulls w/fit
sign-off
singleton or worthless doubleton, GF
unchanged

1 N
?
P2 D2 Sanalogous for spade transfer63

Pass
Dbl
3 D
3 H



normal action
penalty
good heart fit to put bidder on lead
good fit, happy with spade lead

1 N
P
P
P
2 D
?
2 Sanalogous for spade transfer64

Dbl
3 S
Other


optional, I+, opener pulls w/fit
self-splinter, agrees hearts, GF
unchanged

If responder rebids in notrump offering a choice of strain, opener may bid the suit below responder’s major to make responder declarer and put active defender on lead.

Minor Suit Stayman

After a 1 N or 2 N opening the cheapest spade bid shows both minor suits. Only 4-4 is required with slam interest, but otherwise at least 5-4 (either way). Over 1 N strength is game invitational or better; over 2 N it is game forcing.

1 N
?
P2 SP71

2 N 3 C 3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D



minimum, NF
strength in suit, GF
maximum, NF
maximum, pure values, GF

1 N
2 N
P
P
2 S
?
P72

3 C 3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D



5+ cards, NF
shortness, GF
sign-off
5+ cards, ST

1 N
3 C
P
P
2 S
?
Panalogous for 3 D rebid73

3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C



5+ cards, GF
shortness, GF
choice of game, NF
at least 5-5, I

1 N
3 H
P
P
2 S
?
Panalogous for 3 S rebid74

3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H



shortness, ST
sign-off
5+ cards, F (may be original I)
3 hearts, suggestion to play, NF

1 N
3 N
P
P
2 S
?
P75

4 C 4 D
4 H

 •
5+ cards, ST
at least 5-5, ST

After 2 N opening

2 N
?
P3 SP76

3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H


 •
no fit or wrong values
that minor fit
no 4 card fit, good values

2 N
3 N
P
P
3 S
?
P77

4 C 4 D
4 H

 •
5+ cards, ST
at least 5-5, ST

2 N
4 C
P
P
3 S
?
Panalogous for 4 D rebid78

4 D
4 H
5 C

 •
5+ diamonds, ST
at least 5-5, ST
slam remote, NF

Minor Suit Transfers

After a 1 N opening, a response of 2 N shows 5+ clubs, and 3 C shows 5+ diamonds. No strength is promised (may be a bust). Responder should not have a second suit if he plans to bid again. Opener almost always completes the transfer but may gamble 3 N with an exceptional fit and stoppers. This does not apply over 2 N.

1 N
3 C
P
P
2 N
?
P81

3 D 3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
5 C



self-splinter, agrees clubs, ST
mild ST (NF)
shapely, I
shapely, slam remote, NF

Note that to invite game in notrump it is necessary to use Stayman and rebid 2 N.

1 N
3 D
P
P
3 C
?
P82

3 H 3 S 4 C
3 N
4 D
5 D



self-splinter, agrees diamonds, ST
mild ST, NF
shapely, I
shapely, slam remote, NF

Note that all suit rebids by responder confirm 6+ cards in his minor; notrump rebids can be 5-3-3-2.

Interference after the transfer should be handled like Jacoby transfer interference.

Three Diamonds Majors

After a 1 N opening, a response of 3 D shows at least 5-5 in the majors and GF values. This does not apply over 2 N.

1 N
?
P3 DP91

3 H 3 S
3 N
4 H 4 S


 •
better fit, normal action
extreme minor strength, NF
great fit, both minor aces

1 N
3 H
P
P
3 D
?
Panalogous for 3 S rebid92

3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H
 •


two singletons, ST
honors in short suits, NF
shortness, ST
sign-off

1 N
3 N
P
P
3 D
?
P93

4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S


shortness, ST
no slam interest, NF, correctable
sign-off

After a double

1 N
?
P3 DX94

Pass
Rdbl
Other


no diamond control
5+ strong diamonds, suggest to play
unchanged

Splinter Responses

After a 1 N opening, a response of 3 H or 3 S shows a 3-suited hand (4-4-4-1 or 5-4-4-0) short in the major bid with interest in slam. This does not apply over 2 N.

1 N
?
P3 HP101

3 S 4 C 4 D
3 N

fit-showing
no fit or wrong values

1 N
?
P3 SP102

3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S



no fit or wrong values
fit-showing
heart fit, discouraging slam
heart fit, good hand

1 N
3 S
P
P
3 H
?
P103

3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S



blank honor, NF
control
void
minimal ST (NF)

1 N
3 N
P
P
3 H
?
Panalogous for 3 S response104

4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S


5 cards
super Gerber
5 spades, NF

1 N
4 C
P
P
3 H
?
Panalogous for 3 S response
and/or 4 D rebid
105

4 D 4 S
4 H
5 C


control
super Gerber
minimal ST (NF)

After a double

1 N
?
P3 HXanalogous for 3 S doubled106

Pass
Rdbl
Other


no 4+ fit, doubts about 3 N
4+ strong hearts, desire to play
unchanged

Texas Transfer

After a 1 N or 2 N opening a jump to 4 D shows 6+ hearts, and a jump to 4 H shows 6+ spades. Opener must complete the transfer, and responder usually passes. If responder does bid again:

1 N
4 H
P
P
4 D
?
Panalogous for spade transfer111

4 S 5 C 5 D
4 N
5 H


void, ST
Blackwood
freak shape, I

After a double

1 N
?
P4 DXanalogous for 4 H doubled112

Pass
Rdbl
4 H


normal action to put doubler on lead
diamond ace
happy with diamond lead

Note that a redouble beyond 3 N is not a suggestion to play but indicates control.

Notrump Interference

If an opponent doubles our 1 N there is one addition:

1 NX?121

Rdbl
Other

rescue with one minor*
unchanged

*Opener bids 2 C then responder passes or corrects.

If an opponent overcalls 2 C (any meaning) our system is on but with the following modifications:

1 N2 C1?1. natural or artificial122

Dbl
2 N
Other


Stayman, unless 2 C = majors then 8+ HCP
natural invitation if 2 C showed clubs
unchanged

Natural overcalls

If an opponent overcalls 2 D or higher in a natural suit (4+ cards) the general scheme is that responses of 2 N through 3 H are transfers to the next higher suit or Stayman if the next higher suit was bid by the opponent. Texas also applies unless the major above was bid by the opponent, then it shows shortness with slam interest.

1 N2 H?analogous for natural 2 D or 2 S123

Dbl
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N 4 S
4 C
4 D
4 H




 •

 •


 •
penalty, creates force
5+ spades, weak, NF
5+ clubs
5+ diamonds
Stayman
5+ spades, I+
asks for heart stopper
sign-off
Gerber
heart shortness, ST
Texas

If the natural overcall shows a second suit:

1 N2 D1?1. diamonds + hearts124

2 shown
Other

takeout, may be just competitive
analogous to #123

Only the actual bid that you can double for penalty qualifies for the Stayman or shortness treatment above.

1 N3 C?analogous for 3 D but unable
to show hearts at 3 level
125

Dbl
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N 4 S
4 C
4 D 4 H



 •


negative
5+ hearts
5+ spades
asks for club stopper
sign-off
Gerber
Texas

1 N3 H?126

Dbl
3 S
3 N 4 S
4 C
4 D
4 H

 •


 •
negative
asks for heart stopper
sign-off
Gerber
heart shortness, ST
Texas

To show a minor on the previous two auctions, responder can bid 3 S (stopper ask) then his minor (GF). The stopper information may also be helpful in judging slam prospects.

1 N3 S?127

Dbl
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H




 •
negative
sign-off
Gerber
Texas
spade shortness, ST

1 N4 C?analogous for 4 D128

Dbl
4 D
4 H 4 S


negative
diamonds, F
natural, NF

Note transfers are off for interference beyond 3 N.

Rebids by opener

1 N
?
2 S3 DPanalogous for other transfers129

3 H
3 N
4 H


normal action
max, good spade stopper
max, good heart fit

1 N
?
2 H3 DPanalogous for other Stayman bids130

3 H
3 S
3 N
4 S*



no heart stopper, not 4 spades
4+ spades, min if only unshown major
heart stopper, not 4 spades
4+ spades, max

*disallowed if both majors unshown

If opener denies a stopper, followups are natural, and bidding can end in 4 C or 4 D. Cue of enemy suit by either asks choice of minors (or remaining suits).

1 N
?
2 H3 SPanalogous for other stopper asks131

3 N
4 suit
Cue
4 N



heart stopper
4+ cards, no stopper, NF
max, no stopper, highest + other suit
max, no stopper, two lowest suits

Artificial overcalls

If an opponent overcalls 2 D or higher artificially (not 4+ cards in suit bid) the following structures apply:

1 N2 D1?analogous for any artificial 2-bid
1. whatever not showing 4+ diamonds
132

Dbl
2 shown
2 unshown
2 N 3 C D H
3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D 4 H




 •


8+ HCP, creates force
takeout, may be just competitive
5+ cards, NF
5+ cards in next higher suit
asks for stopper in shown suit(s)
sign-off
Gerber
Texas

After an artificial overcall note that transferring to a shown suit is the same as any other.

1 N2 N1?1. minors133

3 C
Other

Stayman
same as #132

1 N3 D1?1. majors134

3 H
Other

minors, may be just competitive
same as #132

Note that 4 C by responder is always Gerber (jump or not) after interference.

After our 2 N opening, the same structures apply insofar as possible; i.e., 2 level bids are eliminated, and higher bids keep their meaning.

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

Opening One of Suit

General strategy is to respond up-the-line with 4-4 majors. A 5 card minor may be suppressed to bid a 4 card major at the 1 level, but with good hands tend to bid in natural order unless greatly biased by strength.

1 CP?141

1 D 1 H 1 S
1 N
2 C
2 D 2 H 2 S
2 N
3+ any suit
3 N






6+, 4+ cards
6-10, no 4 card major
11+, 4+ clubs, F
weak
15+, balanced
weak
13-14, balanced

1 DP?142

2 C
2 D
Other


11+, 5+ clubs
11+, 4+ diamonds
same as #141

1 HP?143

1 S
1 N
2 C 2 D
2 H
2 S 3 C 3 D
2 N
3 H
3 S 4 C 4 D
3 N
Higher suit









6+, 4+ spades
6-14, F
13+, 5+ cards
7-10, 3+ hearts
weak
15+, balanced
11-12, 4+ hearts
13+, splinter
13-15, 4+ hearts, no splinter, F
weak

1 SP?144

2 H
2 S
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 H
Other






13+, 5+ cards
7-10, 3+ spades
weak
11-12, 4+ spades
13-15, 4+ spades, no splinter, F
13+, splinter
same as #143

Rebids by Opener

1 C
?
P1 DP151

1 H 1 S
1 N*
2 C
2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N*
3 C
3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D










 •
13-18, 4+ cards
12-14, balanced
13-15, 6+ clubs (rare 5)
13-15, 4 diamonds
19+, 4+ cards (rare 3), GF
18-19, balanced, I
16-18, 6+ clubs, I
16-18, 4+ diamonds, I
19+, splinter
16+, 6+ strong clubs
19+, 6+ clubs, 4 diamonds
19+, 6+ clubs, 5 diamonds

*preferable to 1 H or 1 S with both majors stopped

1 C
?
P1 HPanalogous for other minor-major starts152

1 S
1 N
2 C
2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S 4 D
3 N
4 C
4 H








 •



 •
13-18, 4+ spades
12-14, balanced, not 4 spades
13-15, 6+ clubs (rare 5)
17+, 4+ diamonds (rare 3), F
13-15, 3+ hearts (usually 4)
19+, 4+ cards (rare 3), GF
18-19, balanced, I
16-18, 6+ clubs, I
19+, 6+ clubs, 4+ diamonds, GF
16-18, 4 hearts, I
19+, splinter
16+, 6+ strong clubs
19+, 6+ clubs, 4 hearts, F
19+, 4 hearts, no splinter

1 H
?
P1 SP153

1 N
2 C 2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S











12-14, balanced
13-18, 4+ cards
13-15, 6+ hearts
13-15, 3+ spades (usually 4)
18-19, balanced, I
19, 4+ cards (rare 3), GF
16-18, 6+ hearts, I
16-18, 4 spades, I
16+, 6+ strong hearts
19+, splinter
19+, 6+ hearts
19+, 4 spades, no splinter

Rebids by Responder

After a 1-level suit response and opener’s nonjump, non-reverse rebid, all jumps and raises to three of a minor are GF. Responder usually must bid a new suit (third or fourth) to effect an invitation.

1 C
1 S
P
P
1 H
?
P161

1 N 2 C H S
2 D
2 N 3 C H S
3 D
3 N 4 H 4 S
4 C 4 D





6-10, NF
11+, AF
13+, GF
5+ diamonds, 5+ hearts, GF
sign-off attempt
splinter, ST

1 C
1 H
P
P
1 D
?
P162

1 S
2 S
3 S 4 C
Other



11+, AF
4 spades, 6+ diamonds, GF
splinter, ST
analogous to #161

1 D
2 C
P
P
1 S
?
P163

2 D 2 S
2 H
2 N
3 C 3 D 3 S
3 H
3 N



 •

6-10, NF
11+, AF
10-12, I
13+, GF
5+ hearts, 5+ spades, GF
13-16

1 C
2 C
P
P
1 H
?
P164

2 H
2 D 2 S
2 N
3 C 3 H
3 D
3 S
3 N



 •


6-10, NF
11+, semi-natural, F
10-12, I
13+, GF
5+ diamonds, 5+ hearts, GF
4 spades, 6+ hearts, GF
13-16

1 H
2 D
P
P
1 S
?
P165

2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D 3 H 3 S
3 N



 •
6-10, NF
10-12, I
11+, AF
13+, GF
13-16

1 H
2 H
P
P
1 S
?
P166

2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N





6-10, NF
10-12, I
11+, semi-natural, F
I
13+, GF
13-16

Opener’s Third Bid

After a third- or fourth-suit force, opener should describe his hand as naturally as possible. Bidding at or below 2 N (except new suit, or 2 S after 1 S rebid) or the same suit three times explicitly rejects an invitation and is NF. Other non-jumps are ambiguous strength (F); jumps are GF.

1 D
1 S
?
P
P
1 H
2 C
P
P
171

2 D 2 H 2 N
2 S*
3 C
3 D 3 H 3 N
3 S

 •


reject, NF
4 good/decent spades, ambiguous, F
4 clubs, ambiguous, F
accept
5 spades, 6+ diamonds, GF

*undesirable to bid notrump; could be 5-6 bare minimum

1 D
2 C
?
P
P
1 H
2 S
P
P
172

2 N
3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S
3 N



reject, NF
ambiguous, F
ace*, GF
accept

*because 4 spades were denied (else would show 4)

1 C
2 C
?
P
P
1 S
2 D
P
P
173

2 H
2 S 2 N 3 C
3 D
3 S 3 N



4 hearts or ace, ambiguous, F
reject, NF
4 diamonds, ambiguous, F
accept

1 D
2 D
?
P
P
1 H
3 C
P
P
174

3 D
3 H 4 C
3 S
3 N



reject, NF
ambiguous, F
ace, F
accept

Special cases

1 C
1 H
?
P
P
1 D
1 S
P
P
175

1 N 2 C 2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N 3 C 3 D



reject, NF
4 strong hearts or 5, ambiguous, F
4 spades, ambiguous, F
accept, GF

1 H
2 D
?
P
P
1 S
3 C
P
P
176

3 D*
3 H 3 N 4 m
3 S
 •

reject, not 3 spades, NF
accept
ambiguous, F

*does not show 5+ diamonds

After 2 N invitation

If opener bids the same suit consecutively, or a third suit below his rebid first suit, it is nonforcing.

1 D
2 D
?
P
P
1 H
2 N
P
P
analogous for 1 S response177

3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S


natural, NF
natural, F
strength (short clubs), F

1 D
2 C
?
P
P
1 H
2 N
P
P
analogous for 1 S response178

3 C
3 D 3 H
3 S


 •
natural, NF
natural, F
AF, 5-5 minors

1 H
2 H
?
P
P
1 S
2 N
P
P
179

3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S

natural, NF
natural, F

1 H
2 D
?
P
P
1 S
2 N
P
P
180

3 C 3 H 3 S
3 D

natural, F
natural, NF

Responder’s Third Bid

After a third- or fourth-suit force, responder need not bid again if opener’s third bid was a rejection. If responder does bid again, he names the final strain; if this is a nonjump below game, he shows invitational values. Any jump bid below game is forcing.

If opener raises the third or fourth suit, or shows a preference for responder’s first suit, this does not determine the final strain but merely describes opener’s hand. It is still responder’s duty to bid the final strain next.

Rebidding the third or fourth suit shows at least 5-5 shape; invitational at 3 level, unless opener showed a preference for responder’s first suit then GF; GF at 4 level.

Rebids after 1 N Rebid

When opener rebids 1 N, responder’s rebids follow a similar structure but substituting “new minor forcing” for the previous third-suit force. All jumps are GF.

1 C
1 N
P
P
1 H
?
Panalogous for 1 D opening201

2 C 2 H
2 D
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 H
3 D
3 S 4 C 4 D
3 N 4 H
4 S






 •

 •
6-10, NF
11+, AF
13+, 4 spades, 5+ hearts, GF
11-12, I
13+, GF
13+, at least 5-5, GF
self-splinter, agrees hearts, ST
sign-off
super Gerber

1 D
1 N
P
P
1 S
?
Panalogous for 1 C opening202

2 C
2 D 2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C 3 H
3 D 3 S
3 N 4 S
4 C 4 D
4 H






 •
 •
11+, AF
6-10, NF
11-12, I
13+, at least 5-5, GF
13+, GF
sign-off
self-splinter, agrees spades, ST
super Gerber

1 C
1 N
P
P
1 D
?
P203

2 C*
2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H 3 S 4 C
3 N
4 S
 •




 •

 •
11+, AF
6-10, NF
4 cards, 5+ diamonds, GF
11-12, I
13+, GF
self-splinter, agrees diamonds, ST
sign-off
super Gerber

*no sign-off in clubs on this auction

1 H
1 N
P
P
1 S
?
P204

2 C 2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N 4 H 4 S
4 C 4 D






 •
11+, seminatural, F
6-10, NF
11-12, I
13+, at least 5-5, GF
13+, GF
sign-off
self-splinter, agrees spades, ST

Opener’s third bid

1 C
1 N
?
P
P
1 H
2 D
P
P
205

2 H 2 N
2 S
3 C 3 D
3 H 3 N



reject
ace*, ambiguous
ambiguous
accept

*because 4 spades denied

1 D
1 N
?
P
P
1 S
2 C
P
P
206

2 D 2 S 2 N
2 H*
3 C
3 D 3 S 3 N



reject
4 hearts, ambiguous
4 clubs, ambiguous
accept

*priority bid if also holding 3 spades

1 C
1 N
?
P
P
1 D
2 C
P
P
207

2 D 2 N
2 H 2 S
3 C
3 D 3 N



reject
4 cards, ambiguous
5 clubs, ambiguous
accept

1 H
1 N
?
P
P
1 S
2 D
P
P
208

2 H 2 S 2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H 3 S 3 N


reject
ambiguous
accept

In the previous four auctions, bidding a minor suit at the 3 level implies a weak holding in the unbid suit, hence warning against notrump.

Responder’s third bid

After new minor forcing, responder need not bid again if opener’s third bid was a rejection. If responder does bid again, he names the final strain; if this is a nonjump below game, he shows an invitational-range hand. Any jump bid below game is forcing.

If opener raises the new minor or shows a preference for responder’s first suit, this does not determine the final strain but merely describes opener’s hand. It is still responder’s duty to bid the final strain next.

Rebidding the new minor shows at least 5-5 shape; invitational at 3 level; GF at 4 level.

Rebids after 2 N Rebid

When opener jumps to 2 N (18-19) after a 1-level suit response, the only way to stop below game is to pass; i.e., all continuations are GF. General structure is to use “new minor forcing” on game-only hands, so other bids can be used to suggest slam.

1 C
2 N
P
P
1 H
?
P211

3 C 3 H 3 S
3 D
3 N 4 H
4 C 4 D
4 S



 •
natural, ST
AF, checkback
sign-off
self-splinter, agrees hearts, ST
super Gerber

1 D
2 N
P
P
1 S
?
P212

3 C
3 D 3 H 3 S
3 N 4 S
4 C 4 D
4 H



 •
AF, checkback
natural, ST
sign-off
self-splinter, agrees spades, ST
super Gerber

1 C
2 N
P
P
1 D
?
P213

3 C*
3 D 3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C 4 H
4 S
 •


 •
AF, checkback
natural, ST
sign-off
self-splinter, agrees diamonds, ST
super Gerber

*if followed by 4 C is natural ST

1 H
2 N
P
P
1 S
?
P214

3 C 3 D*
3 H 3 S
3 N 4 H 4 S
4 C 4 D
 •


 •
seminatural, checkback
natural, ST
sign-off
self-splinter, agrees spades, ST

*if followed by 4 C or 4 D is 5-5 ST

Subsequent bidding

If responder has both majors and no slam interest, he must go through “new minor forcing” even with 5-5 shape.

1 C
2 N
3 N
P
P
P
1 S
3 D
?
P
P
215

4 C 4 S
4 D
4 H


 •
natural, no slam interest
at least 5-5, ST
5-5 in majors, no slam interest

Notrump Responses to Minor

After a 1 C or 1 D opening, a 1 N response shows 6-10 HCP, and 3 N shows 13-14 HCP. Both show balanced hands (except 1 N over 1 D necessitated by long clubs) and no 4 card major, but may have one if flat (4-3-3-3) with the other unbid suits stopped.

1 D
?
P1 NPanalogous for 1 C opening221

Pass
2 C
2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N 3 D
3 C
3 H 3 S
3 N






 •
most common
13-18, NF
13-15, NF
17+, 4+ cards (rare 3), F
16-18, I
19+, 4+ clubs (rare 3), GF
4+ cards, 6+ diamonds, GF
sign-off

1 C
?
P3 NPanalogous for 1 D opening222

Pass
4 C 4 D 4 H
4 S


most common
natural, ST, F
super Gerber

See also “Two Notrump Response” which is the same over a minor or major.

One Notrump Forcing

After a 1 H or 1 S opening, a response of 1 N shows 6-14 HCP (rarely less with a fit) and denies 4 spades after 1 H. Obviously it is forcing.

1 H
?
P1 NP231

2 C 2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H








 •
13-18, 3+ cards, NF
13-15, 6+ hearts, NF
17+ with 6+ hearts else 19+, F
16-18, I
19+, 4+ cards (rare 3), GF
16-18, 6+ hearts, I
4+ spades, 6+ hearts, GF
19+, NF
19+, splinter, 6+ hearts
19+, 6+ hearts

1 S
?
P1 NP232

2 H
2 S
3 H
3 S
4 H
Other





13-18, 4+ hearts, NF
13-15, 6+ spades, NF
19+, 4+ hearts, GF
16-18, 6+ spades, I
16-18, at least 5-5, NF
same as #231

Rebids by responder

1 H
2 C
P
P
1 N
?
P233

2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D 3 S
3 H
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H


 •


 •



 •
6-10, 6+ diamonds (rare 5), NF
6-10 with 2 hearts or 4-7 w/3+, NF
11+, agrees clubs
11-12, I
10-12, 5+ clubs (rare 4), NF
13+, club raise, values in bid, F
11-12, 3 hearts, I
13-14, NF
10-12, 6+ clubs, I
13+, heart raise, diamond values
13+, 3 hearts, NF

1 S
2 D
P
P
1 N
?
P234

2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 H
4 D
4 S





 •


 •

6-10, 5+ hearts, NF
6-10 with 2 spades or 4-7 w/3+, NF
11-12, I
6-10, 6+ clubs, NF
10-12, 5+ diamonds (rare 4), I
13+, diamond raise, heart values
11-12, 3 spades, I
13-14, NF
13+, spade raise, values in bid
10-12, 6+ diamonds, I
13+, 3 spades, NF

1 S
2 H
P
P
1 N
?
P235

2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S






 •

6-10 with 2 spades or 4-7 w/3+, NF
11-12, I
6-10, 6+ cards, NF
9-11, 4+ hearts, I
11-12, 3 spades, I
13-14, NF
13+, heart raise, values in bid
12+, 4+ hearts, NF
13+, 3 spades, NF

Note that responder’s jump shifts always show support for opener’s second suit, unless beyond 3 N when second suit is a minor, then opener’s first suit. Value jumps (not splinters) are used because if responder has a splinter it is almost always in opener’s original major.

1 H
2 H
P
P
1 N
?
P236

2 S*
3 S 4 C 4 D
3 H
4 H
Other
 •
 •


8+, at least 5-5 minors, F
13+, heart raise, values in bid, GF
11-12, 2 hearts, I
13+ with 2 hearts or 11+ w/3+
same as #235

*limit bidding follows

When opener shows extras

1 H
2 S
P
P
1 N
?
P237

2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H




 •
weak or waiting, F
6+ cards, F
10+, 3 cards, GF
10-12, NF
11+, heart raise, values in bid
8-10, NF

1 H
2 N
P
P
1 N
?
P238

3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
Jump suit


 •
 •
weak, 6+ cards, NF
weak, sign-off attempt
at least 5-5 minors, GF
11+, heart raise, values in bid

1 S
2 N
P
P
1 N
?
P239

3 H
Other

5+ cards, F
analogous to #238

1 H
3 H
P
P
1 N
?
P240

3 S
4 C 4 D
 •
at least 5-5 minors, GF
6+ cards, F

1 S
3 S
P
P
1 N
?
P241

4 C 4 D
4 H

6+ cards, F
6+ hearts, NF

1 H
3 C
P
P
1 N
?
P242

3 D
3 H
3 S
4 C
4 D
4 H


 •

 •
5+ diamonds
weak or waiting, 2+ hearts
11+, club raise
6-10, 4+ clubs
11+, heart raise, diamond values
11-12, 3 hearts

1 S
3 D
P
P
1 N
?
P243

3 H
3 S
4 C
4 D
4 H
4 S




 •
5+ hearts
weak or waiting, 2+ spades
6+ clubs
4+ diamonds
11+, spade raise, heart values
11-12, 3 spades

1 S
3 H
P
P
1 N
?
P244

3 S
4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S



weak or waiting, 2+ spades
6+ cards, F
4+ hearts (rare 3)
11-12, 3 spades

Two over One of Major

After a 1 H or 1 S opening, a 2-over-1 response shows 5+ cards (rarely strong 4 card minor) and 13+ points, or 6+ cards with 11-12 points. This is GF unless responder rebids his suit next, then invitational. Opener rebids naturally, with no extra strength required for any nonjump bid. Jumps in unbid suits are always splinters: raises if below 4 of responder’s suit, self-splinters if above.

1 H
?
P2 CPanalogous for other major-minor starts251

2 D 2 S
2 H
2 N
3 C
3 D 3 S
3 H
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H








 •
4+ cards
6+ hearts or strong 5
12-14 or 18+
3+ clubs*
15+, splinter, club raise
15+, 6+ hearts, solid or K-Q-J-10
15-17, NF
15+, 5-5 shape
15+, self-splinter, agrees hearts
15-17, 7+ hearts, no unbid suit control

1 S
?
P2 HP252

2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S








6+ spades or strong 5
12-14 or 18+
4+ cards
3+ hearts*
15+, 6+ spades, solid or K-Q-J-10
15-17, NF
15+, splinter, heart raise
15-17, 3+ hearts*, no unbid suit control
15-17, 7+ spades, no unbid suit control

*Opener should not raise immediately with 3 small.

Rebids by responder

1 H
2 D
P
P
2 C
?
P253

2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H










13+, 3+ hearts
13+, AF, usually 6+ clubs
13-14 or 18+
11-12, 6+ clubs, NF
13+, 4+ diamonds
15-17, 3+ hearts*
15+, splinter, diamond raise
15-17, NF
15+, 6+ clubs, solid or K-Q-J-10
15-17, 4+ diamonds, no spade control
15-17, 3+ hearts*, no spade control

*not 3 small

1 S
2 S
P
P
2 D
?
P254

2 N
3 C 3 H
3 D
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 H
4 D
4 S







13-14 or 18+
4+ cards (rare 3)
11-12, 6+ diamonds, NF
13+, spades J-x or better
15-17, NF
15+, splinter, spade raise
15+, 6+ diamonds, solid or K-Q-J-10
15-17, no unbid suit control

1 S
2 N
P
P
2 D
?
P255

3 C 3 H
3 D
3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H
4 S







4+ cards (rare 3)
11-12, 6+ diamonds, NF
13+, 3+ spades
13-17, NF
15+, self-splinter, agrees diamonds
15+, 6+ diamonds, solid or K-Q-J-10
super Gerber
15-17, no unbid suit control

Subsequent bidding

If either player has shown a dual range and next bids voluntarily past game, this shows the upper range, except a raise to 4 H or 4 S, which implies x-x-x support.

1 S
2 N
?
P
P
2 H
3 N
P
P
256

4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S


18+, heart raise, values in bid
13-17, 3 small hearts
18-19, 5+ strong spades, NF

1 H
2 D
3 N
P
P
P
2 C
2 N
?
P
P
257

4 C
4 D
4 H
4 S



18+, 6+ clubs
18+, 4+ diamonds (rare 3)
13-17, 3 small hearts
super Gerber

Two Clubs over One Diamond

After a 1 D opening, a 2 C response shows 5+ clubs (rarely strong 4) and 11+ points. If opener has a minimum (not enough to force to game) he must rebid 2 D, which is artificial; any other rebid shows 15+ (good 14) and is GF.

1 D
?
P2 CP261

2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
 •






 •
any minimum, AF
15+, 4+ cards, 5+ diamonds
15+ (good 14)
15+, 3+ clubs (not 3 small)
15+, 6+ diamonds
15+, splinter, club raise
18-19, NF
15+, 5-5 minors

Rebids by responder

1 D
2 D
P
P
2 C
?
P262

2 H 2 S 3 D
2 N 3 C
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D





 •
13+, natural, GF
11-12, natural, NF
17+, self-splinter*, agrees clubs
13-17, NF
17+, 6+ clubs, solid or K-Q-J-10
17+, 5-5 minors

*based on “last shown suit” principle (2 D was artificial)

Inverted Minor Raises

After a 1 C or 1 D opening, responder’s single raise show 10+ (11+ if balanced), 4+ trumps and no 4 card major; forcing for one round.

1 C
?
P2 CPanalogous for 1 D P 2 D271

2 D 2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D 3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C





15+, natural or stopper, F
12-14, often 3 clubs, NF
12-14, 4+ clubs, NF
17+, splinter, GF
18-19, NF
17+, 6+ clubs, no splinter, F

Subsequent bidding

If either player bids 3 or 4 of the agreed minor (nonjump) it shows minimum values for the previous bidding and is NF. Exception: Removing 3 N to 4 of the minor is a slam try (F) unless the same player made a NF bid.

1 D
2 H
P
P
2 D
?
Panalogous for similar auctions272

2 S 3 C
2 N
3 D
3 H
3 S 4 C
3 N





strength, F
natural, F
minimum, NF
natural (good 3), F
13+, splinter, GF
12-14, NF

Weak jump raise

Conversely, jump minor raises are weak, typically 6-9 with 5+ trumps.

1 D
?
P3 DPanalogous for 1 C P 3 C273

Pass
3 H 3 S 4 C
3 N


most common
4+ cards or strength, F
18-19, NF

Higher minor raises (1 C 4 C or 1 D 5 D) are also weak (6-9) but indicate wilder distribution.

Weak Jump Shifts

After an opening bid of 1 of a suit, all jumps in unbid suits to any level are weak, except for a double jump-shift response to a major, which is defined as a splinter bid. Typical holdings depend on the level.

1 CP?281

2 D 2 H 2 S
3 D 3 H 3 S
4 D 4 H 4 S
5 D 5 H 5 S



2-5 HCP, 6 cards or good 5
2-7 HCP, 7 cards or good 6
2-7 HCP, 8 cards or good 7
schizoid on parole?

When jumping to 3 or 4 in a suit below game, playing tricks are more important than HCP or suit length. Responder should have 4 tricks less than his bid, so opener can judge when to bid game.

Rebids by opener

1 D
?
P2 HP282

Pass
2 S 3 C 3 D
2 N*
3 H
3 S 4 C 4 D
3 N (rare)
4 H


 •



well advised
natural, extreme shape, no fit, NF
AF, game try
blocking, NF
natural, extreme shape, no fit, I
natural, no fit, based on own hand
good fit, may be blocking

*same structure as after weak two-bids

1 S
?
P3 DP283

Pass
3 H 3 S 4 C
3 N*
4 D
4 H 4 S




well advised
natural, extreme shape, no fit, NF
natural, D K-x or better, NF
diamond fit, I
natural, extreme shape, no fit

*responder should pull with no ace or king anywhere

Two Notrump Response

After an opening bid of 1 of a suit, a 2 N response shows a balanced hand of 15+ HCP, usually with no 4 card major biddable at the 1 level, but may contain one if flat (4-3-3-3) with the other unbid suits stopped. This bid neither shows nor denies support for opener’s suit.

1 D
?
P2 NP291

3 C 3 H 3 S
3 D
3 N
4 C 4 H
4 D
4 S





4+ cards, usually 5+ diamonds
6+ diamonds
12-14, NF
15+, self-splinter, agrees diamonds
15+, agrees diamonds
super Gerber

1 S
?
P2 NP292

3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D 4 H
4 S




4+ cards
6+ spades
12-14, NF
15+, self-splinter, agrees spades*
15-16, agrees spades*

*hence responder’s 4 N is then Blackwood

Rebids by responder

Responder is presumed to have 15-17 HCP, so with 18+ he must bid beyond game. Bidding an unbid suit shows strength and implies support for opener’s last shown suit, unless opener bid a major that responder bypassed at the 1 level, then opener’s first suit.

1 C
3 H
P
P
2 N
?
P293

3 S 4 D
3 N
4 C
4 H
4 S




strength in suit, club fit
15-17, NF
working cards, club fit
15-17, 4 hearts, 4-3-3-3
super Gerber

1 H
3 D
P
P
2 N
?
P294

3 H
3 S 4 C
3 N
4 D
4 H
4 S





3+ hearts
strength in suit, diamond fit
15-17, NF
working cards, diamond fit
15-17, working cards, 3+ hearts, NF
super Gerber

1 S
3 N
P
P
2 N
?
P295

Pass
4 C 4 D 4 H
4 S


15-17
18+, strength in suit, spade fit
15-17, spade fit

Major Suit Game Tries

If we raise a major from 1 to 2, whether an opening bid, response or rebid, game tries are launched by the cheapest bid (2 S or 2 N) to ask about dummy’s hand. Purpose is to allow effective game tries without revealing information about the closed hand. Other suit bids become slam tries.

1 H
?
P2 HP301

2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D 3 S
3 H
3 N
4 C 4 D


 •


AF, asking
balanced, I
natural ST (4+ cards)
blocking
choice of games
splinter, ST

1 S
?
P2 SP302

2 N
3 C 3 D 3 H
Other

 •
AF, asking
natural ST (4+ cards)
analogous to #301

After the artificial ask, if dummy has a suit with secondary values (3+ cards with king or queen, or both) he should show it; otherwise he defines his strength.

1 H
2 S
P
P
2 H
?
P303

2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
4 H
 •


 •
spade values
values in suit bid
minimum
maximum, flat (4-3-3-3), suggests 3 N
maximum

1 S
2 N
P
P
2 S
?
P304

3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S
3 N
4 S



values in suit bid
minimum
maximum, flat (4-3-3-3), NF
maximum

When dummy shows secondary values, asker may base his decision on that or inquire further.

1 H
2 S
?
P
P
2 H
3 C
P
P
305

3 D
3 H
3 N


relay, asks if min or max
turned off by club values
choice of games

1 S
2 N
?
P
P
2 S
3 H
P
P
306

3 S*
Other

asks to pass with min
analogous to #305

*does not imply heart dislike (no relay available)

Subsequent bidding

If dummy is asked if min or max, he simply bids (or passes) 3 of the major with a minimum.

If asker bids a suit between 3 and 4 of the raised major, it is a slam try with a 1-suited hand.

After interference

If an opponent bids after our raise from 1 to 2, the relay structure is off; game tries are then made in the traditional manner by bidding a different suit. Note that early interference (before our raise to 2) and doubles of any kind change nothing.

Opener’s Reverse Bid

After a 1 C, 1 D or 1 H opening and a non-touching 1-level response, opener’s 2-level bid in a suit between (i.e., higher than suit opened but nonjump) shows 17+ points and is forcing. Opener shows 9+ cards in his two suits, typically 5-4, but 6-3 is plausible on awkward hands.

1 C
2 D
P
P
1 H
?
P311

2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S
3 N





6-10, 5+ hearts, F
11+, nondescript, GF
6-10, not 5 hearts, F
11+, natural, GF
11+, splinter, diamond raise
11-12, NF

1 D
2 H
P
P
1 S
?
P312

2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D 3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C





6-10, 5+ spades, F
6-10, not 5 spades, F
11+, nondescript, GF
11+, natural, GF
11-12, NF
11+, splinter, heart raise

1 C
2 H
P
P
1 N
?
P313

2 S 3 D
2 N
3 C 3 H
3 N



9-10, strength in suit bid, GF
6-10, nondescript, F
9-10, natural, GF
9-10, NF

1 H
2 S
P
P
1 N
?
P314

2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H






6-10, nondescript, F
6+, 5+ cards, F
11+, 3 hearts, GF
11+, Q-x-x or better, GF
11-12, NF
11+, values in bid, 3 hearts
11-12, 3 hearts

After Interference

1 D
2 H
P
P
1 S
?
2 Canalogous for any overcall, either opponent315

2 N
3 D
Cue
Other



natural (stopper), F
weak, NF
nondescript, GF
analogous to #314

Opener’s next bid

After a reverse, opener must bid again below game (except in competition after a preference or pass). If responder shows a weak range and opener has less than GF values, opener must bid 2 N, 3 of his original suit (even with only 5 cards), or raise responder’s 5+ major to 3.

1 C
2 D
?
P
P
1 H
2 H
P
P
316

2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N 4 H
4 C







ace or shortness, GF
17-18, NF
17-18, 5+ clubs, NF
5 diamonds, 6+ clubs, GF
17-18, at least Q-x, NF
splinter, heart raise, ST
natural, NF
7+ clubs, F

1 D
2 H
?
P
P
1 S
2 N
P
P
317

3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D






ace or shortness, GF
17-18, 5+ diamonds, NF
5 hearts, 6+ diamonds, GF
at least Q-x-x, GF*
natural, NF
self-splinter, agrees diamonds, ST
agrees diamonds, F

*forcing because responder denied 5 spades

1 H
2 S
?
P
P
1 N
2 N
P
P
318

3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N 4 H
4 C 4 D




3-4 cards, GF
17-18, 6 hearts*, NF
5 spades, 6+ hearts, GF
natural, NF
self-splinter, agrees hearts, ST

*with 5 hearts opener would not bid 2 S with 17-18

Fourth Suit Bids

Except for the usual “fourth suit forcing” and special cases described, bidding the fourth suit (for the first time) shows the ace or shortness.

1 H
2 C
?
P
P
1 S
3 C
P
P
321

3 D
Other

ace or shortness
natural

1 D
2 D
3 D
P
P
P
2 C
2 H
?
P
P
322

3 S
Other

ace or shortness
natural

Partner assumes the ace and may bid 3 N with no stopper, which fourth-suit bidder removes if based on shortness.

Passed Hand Changes

If partner is a passed hand, a number of changes apply, most of which are obvious. Opening bids of 1 of a suit may be light (10+) and 1 H or 1 S may be a good 4 card suit.

Normally forcing responses (1-over-1, 1 N response to major, 2 C over 1 D, 2 H over 1 S, inverted minors) are now limited. Opener should pass with 12 or less, and may pass with 13. If opener does bid again, his rebids retain their normal meaning, including F/NF status.

A 2 N response to a minor shows 11-12 HCP, invitational. Any rebid by opener below game (including 3 of his minor) is forcing.

A 3 C response to 1 D, 1 H or 1 S shows 8-11 HCP and 6+ clubs, NF of course, but any rebid by opener below game is forcing. (This only applies in clubs because other suits would have been opened a weak two-bid.)

Cue-bid (P P 1 D 1 S; 2 S) shows stopper but opener’s 2 N or same suit says no game.

Subsequent bidding

Responders second-round jump bids and raises to 3 of a minor (normally forcing) are now invitational.

Fourth suit forcing and new minor forcing still apply; being a passed hand just allows more ways to invite.

Third suit forcing does not apply.

P
1 S
?
P
P
1 D
2 D
P
P
331

2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D 3 S




9-12, 4+ hearts, NF
6-10, NF
10-12, I
9-12, 5+ clubs, NF
11-12, I

Two-Way Reverse Drury

After a 1 H or 1 S opening in third or fourth seat, responses of 2 C and 2 D are artificial raises.

P
?
P1 HPanalogous for 1 S opening341

2 C
2 D
2 H
3 H
4 H




11+, 3 hearts
11+, 4 hearts
7-10, 3+ hearts
11-12, 5 hearts
weak, extreme shape

Rebids by opener

P
2 C
P
P
1 H
?
Psame as 2 D Drury less 2 D rebid342

2 D
2 H
Other


game interest
no game interest
game try structure

P
2 C
P
P
1 S
?
P343

2 D
2 H
2 S
Other



game interest
4+ hearts, game interest
no game interest
game try structure

P
2 D
P
P
1 S
?
P344

2 H
2 S
Other


game interest
no game interest
game try structure

Follow-up bidding

If opener shows game interest, it may still be possible to stop in 2 of the major.

P
2 C
?
P
P
1 H
2 D
P
P
345

2 H
Other

minimal values, discouraging
game try structure (dummy role)*

P
2 D
?
P
P
1 S
2 H
P
P
346

2 S
Other

minimal values, discouraging
game try structure (dummy role)*

*Except 2 N shows values in last bid suit, and other suits show values naturally.

Opener can also invoke the game try structure when responder returns to 2 of the major.

After interference

The artificial 2 C and 2 D raises do not apply in competition. If an opponent interferes after the bid, the usual countermeasures apply.

P
2 C
P
X
1 H
?
P347

Pass
Rdbl
Other


3+ clubs
4+ strong clubs
unchanged

P
2 C
P
2 H
1 S
?
P348

Pass
Dbl
2 S
2 N



no game interest
penalty
no game interest, competitive
game try structure

P
2 C
P
2 S
1 H
?
P349

Pass
Dbl
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H




no game interest
penalty
natural, I
seminatural game try, F
competitive

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

Competitive One of Suit

After Takeout Double

If our opening bid of 1 of a suit is doubled for takeout, the following changes apply.

1 CX?371

Pass
Rdbl
Suit bids
1 N
2 N
3 N





0-9, or 10-14*
10+ HCP, implies no fit, creates force
unchanged
unchanged
9-11, natural, based on fit, I
12-15, natural, based on fit, NF

*if intention is to make a cooperative double next

1 DX?372

2 C
Other

6-10, 6+ clubs (good 5), NF
same as #371

Note that inverted minor raises and weak jump shifts are unchanged after a double.

1 HX?373

Pass
Rdbl
1 S 2 H
1 N
2 C 2 D
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
Higher








0-9, or 10-14
10+ HCP, implies no fit, creates force
unchanged
6-10, balanced, NF
6-10, 6+ cards (good 5), NF
10-12, 4+ fit (rare 3)
unchanged
6-9, 4+ fit
unchanged

1 SX?374

2 C 2 D 2 H
2 S 3 C D H
3 S
Other



6-10, 6+ cards (good 5), NF
unchanged
6-9, 4+ fit
same as #373

Note that 3 N major raise and splinter bids are unchanged.

Subsequent bidding

A takeout double in itself does not affect our rebid structure after any response that is unchanged. If an opponent bids after the double, we revert to a “limit structure.”

After Suit Overcall

If our opening bid of 1 of a suit is overcalled in a natural unbid suit, the following changes apply.

After a minor opening

1 C1 D?381

Dbl
1 N
Cue
2 N
Jump cue
3 N
Other






6+, at least 4-4 majors
7-10, stopper
13+, balanced, stopper, GF
11-12, stopper, I
13+, splinter raise
9-12, natural, based on fit
unchanged

1 C1 H?analogous for 1 D opening382

Dbl
1 S
2 D
Other



6+, 4 spades
6+, 5+ spades, F
10+, 5+ diamonds, F
same as #381

1 C1 S?analogous for 1 D opening383

Dbl
2 D 2 H
Other


7+, 4+ hearts
10+, 5+ cards, F
same as #381

1 D2 C?384

Dbl
2 H 2 S
2 N
Other



7+, at least 1 major
10+, 5+ cards, F
10-12, stopper, I
same as #381

Note that inverted minor raises and weak jump shifts are unchanged after a suit overcall.

After a major opening

1 H1 S?385

Dbl
1 N
2 C 2 D
Cue
2 N
Jump cue
3 N
4 C 4 D
Other






 •
 •
7+, at least 4-4 minors
7-10, stopper
10+, 5+ cards, F
13+, balanced, stopper, GF
11-12, stopper, I
13+, splinter raise
13+, 3+ fit, no control in opp’s suit
weak, natural
unchanged

1 H2 C?analogous for 2 D overcall386

Dbl
2 D 2 S
2 N
3 S 4 D
Other



 •
7+, 4+ spades
10+, 5+ cards, F
10-12, stopper, I
weak, natural
same as #385

1 H2 D?analogous for 1 S opening387

Dbl
2 S 3 C
3 S 4 C
Other


 •
7+, 4+ spades
10+, 5+ cards, F
weak, natural
same as #385

1 S2 H?388

Dbl
3 C 3 D
Other


8+, at least 4-4 minors
10+, 5+ cards, F
same as #385

Note that splinter bids in competition only apply in enemy suits.

Rebids after a negative double

After a negative double it is opener’s duty to select the contract. With no clear bid it is better to bid a 3 card suit that responder might have than to rebid a 5 card suit already shown. Opener should rebid at the cheapest level with 13-15, jump with 16-18 (invitational below game) or cue-bid as the only force (GF). Passing for penalty is also a viable option at the 2 level with 4+ trumps.

1 D
?
1 SXPanalogous for many sequences389

1 N 2 C D H
2 S
2 N* 3 C D H
3 N



13-15, natural, NF
19+, nondescript, GF
16-18, I
19+, NF

*may be off-shape hence 16-17 is possible

If responder bids again after a negative double, assuming opener has not shown extras, only a cue-bid is forcing (GF). Preferences and new suit bids are NF; 2 N, raises, and jumps below game are invitational.

1 C
2 C
1 S
P
X
?
Panalogous for many sequences390

2 D 2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D 3 H
3 S
3 N






7-9, 5+ cards, NF
13+, nondescript, GF
10-12, stopper, I
10-12, Q-x or better, I
10-12, 6+ cards, I
13+, splinter raise
13+, stopper, NF

Rebids after a 2-over-1 response

Competitive 2-over-1 responses (10+) are forcing for one round (think Acol). If opener rebids his original suit, bids 2 N or raises responder’s suit, it is NF and confirms minimum values. New suits are forcing for another round. Only a cue-bid or jump below game creates a GF.

1 D
?
1 S2 HPanalogous for many sequences391

2 S
2 N 3 D 3 H
3 C
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H






16+, nondescript, GF
minimum, NF
any strength, 4+ clubs, F
16+, splinter raise
15-19, NF
16+, extreme shape, F
15-17, NF

If responder bids again when opener has not shown extras, similar principles apply. Bidding 2 N or any of our previously bid suits is NF and confirms minimum values. A new suit, cue-bid or jump below game is GF.

1 S
2 H
2 C
P
2 D
?
Panalogous for many sequences392

2 S
2 N 3 D
3 C
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H 4 S








minimum, Q-x or better, NF
minimum, NF
13+, nondescript, GF
minimum, Q-x-x or better, NF
13+, 3+ spades, GF
13+, NF
13+, splinter, heart raise
13+, extreme shape, F
13-15, NF

Note that responder’s preference or raise of a forcing bid does not promise a normal trump fit.

After Jump Suit Overcall

After our opening bid of 1 of a suit, if an opponent jumps in a natural suit, the following changes apply.

Two-level jump overcalls

1 C2 D?401

Dbl
2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C
Cue
3 N
Jump cue
Other







7+, at least 1 major
10+, 5+ cards, F
10-12, stopper, I
8-11, 4+ clubs, NF
13+, balanced, stopper, GF
9-12, based on fit, NF
13+, splinter raise
unchanged

1 C2 H?analogous for 1 D opening402

Dbl
2 S 3 D
Other


7+, 4+ spades
10+, 5+ cards, F
same as #401

1 C2 S?analogous for 1 D opening403

Dbl
3 D 3 H
Other


8+, 4+ hearts
10+, 5+ cards, F
same as #401

1 H2 S?404

Dbl
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
Cue
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H





 •
 •
8+, at least 4-4 minors
10-12, stopper, I
10+, 5+ cards, F
7-10, 3+ hearts, NF
13+, balanced, stopper, GF
13+, 3+ hearts, no spade control
weak, natural
11-12, 3+ hearts, NF

Subsequent bidding is essentially the same as after a 2-level nonjump overcall, so the previous structures for “Rebids after a negative double” and “Rebids after a 2-over-1 response” would apply.

Three-level jump overcalls

1 D3 C?405

Dbl
3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
Cue
4 D 4 H 4 S





8+, at least 1 major
8-11, 4+ diamonds, NF
10+, 5+ cards, F
10-15, stopper
13+, fit, enemy control
weak, natural, NF

1 C3 D?406

4 C
Other

10-12, 4+ clubs, NF
same as #405

1 C3 H?analogous for 1 D opening407

Dbl
3 S 4 D
Other


8+, 4+ spades
10+, 5+ cards, F
same as #405

1 C3 S?analogous for 1 D opening408

Dbl
4 D
4 H
Other



9+, 4+ hearts
10+, 5+ cards, F
10-15, 5+ cards, NF
same as #405

1 H3 S?409

Dbl
4 C 4 D
4 H
Other



9+, at least 4-4 minors
10+, 5+ cards, F
9-15, 3+ cards, NF
same as #405

Subsequent bidding is mostly common sense.

Four-level jump overcalls

1 D4 C?410

Dbl
4 D
4 H 4 S
5 C
5 D




10+, at least 1 major
10-12, 4+ diamonds, NF
10-16, 5+ cards, NF
16+, diamond fit, club control
13-16, 5+ diamonds, NF

1 C4 D?411

Dbl
4 H 4 S 5 C

10+, at least 1 major
10-16, natural, NF

1 C4 H?analogous for 1 D opening412

Dbl
4 S 5 C 5 D

10+, 4+ spades
10-16, natural, NF

1 C4 S?analogous for 1 D or 1 H opening413

Dbl
5 C 5 D 5 H

penalty
10-16, natural, NF

After Two-Suited Overcall

After our opening bid of 1 of a suit, these structures apply if an opponent makes an overcall that shows two suits, at least one of which is known. Michaels and unusual 2 N are the most common, but many others exist.

1 C2 C1?1. both majors421

Dbl
2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D 4 C
3 H 3 S
3 N


 •
 •




10+ HCP, creates force
7-10, 6+ diamonds (rare 5), NF
11+, club raise
11+, 5+ diamonds
9-11, based on fit, I
7-10, 4+ clubs, NF
weak, natural, NF
13+, splinter raise
12-14, based on fit, NF

1 D2 D1?1. both majors422

2 H
2 S
3 C
3 D
Other
 •
 •


11+, diamond raise
11+, 5+ clubs
7-10, 6+ clubs, NF
7-10, 4+ diamonds, NF
same as #421

1 H2 H1?1. spades + minor423

Dbl
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D 4 H

 •





10+ HCP, creates force
11+, heart raise
9-11, based on fit, I
7-10, 6+ cards, NF
7-10, 3+ hearts
13+, splinter raise
12-14, based on fit, NF
weak, natural, NF

1 S2 S1?1. hearts + minor424

3 H
3 S
4 H
4 C 4 D 4 S
Other




11+, spade raise
7-10, 3+ spades
13+, splinter raise
weak, natural, NF
same as #423

1 H2 N1?1. both minors425

Dbl
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H 4 S

 •
 •




10+ HCP, creates force
11+, heart raise
11+, 5+ spades
7-10, 3+ hearts, NF
7-10, 6+ spades (rare 5), NF
10-14, based on fit, NF
13+, splinter raise
weak, natural, NF

1 S2 N1?1. both minors426

3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
Other
 •
 •


11+, spade raise
11+, 5+ hearts
7-10, 6+ hearts (rare 5), NF
7-10, 3+ spades, NF
same as #425

Note that cheaper cue is always a raise of opener, and higher cue (if both suits known) shows the fourth suit.

Subsequent bidding

After the higher cue, if opener rebids in notrump or his original suit, this confirms a minimum and is NF. A “raise” of responder’s indicated suit is forcing below game.

After doubling, if responder next bids a new suit or a suit shown by the enemy, it is natural and forcing below game.

If responder passes the two-suited overcall and later bids a suit shown by the enemy, it is natural and NF.

After One Notrump Overcall

After our opening bid of 1 of a suit and a natural 1 N overcall (regardless of strength) the following changes apply.

1 C1 N?431

Dbl
2 C
2 D 2 H 2 S
2 N
Higher

 •


10+ HCP, creates force
6+, both majors
6-9, 6+ cards (good 5), NF
10+, any 2-suiter, AF
unchanged

1 D1 N?432

2 C
2 D
Other

 •
6-9, 6+ clubs (good 5)
6+, both majors
same as #431

Note that majors are shown by a minor “raise” and the unbid minor is natural.

1 H1 N?analogous for 1 S opening433

Dbl
2 C 2 D 2 S
2 H 3 H 4 H
3 C 3 D
2 N
3 S 4 C 4 D





 •
10+ HCP, creates force
6-9, 6+ cards (good 5)
unchanged
unchanged
10+, any 2-suiter, AF
weak, natural

Competitive Doubles

Many doubles below 3 N, while traditionally penalty, are better played as competitive to show a desire to compete without clear direction. Unfortunately, these situations can’t be chosen at whim, because penalty doubles are important too. Firm agreements are essential to avoid misunderstandings.

A prerequisite for any competitive double is that we are not in a force, i.e., we have not redoubled or otherwise indicated partnership assets of 23+ HCP where a pass would be forcing.

Given the above, all doubles at the 1 level are competitive unless defined otherwise.

Four conditions must be met for a competitive double at the 2 or 3 level:441
1. All four players have acted (bid or doubled)
2. We have not bid notrump
3. We have not raised a suit
4. No enemy action was in balancing seat

Minimum strength for a competitive double is about 3 points more than previously shown. There is no upper limit, so the double is also useful on game-going hands.

Competitive doubles are often misused, so counter examples may be helpful:

1 D
P
P
P
1 S
X
2 Cpenalty (only one opponent acted)

1 D
1 N
P
2 S
1 H
X
1 Spenalty (we bid notrump)

1 H
X
2 C2 H3 Cpenalty (we raised a suit)

1 C
2 C
X
X
P
1 S
P
P
2 H
penalty (opponent balanced)

Subsequent bidding

Partner of competitive doubler should choose the contract from alternatives suggested by the bidding. Any nonjump (even a new suit) is NF; jumps below game are invitational. Passing the double is a viable option with 4 trumps, or three trumps at the 3 level.

Maximal double

An exception to Condition 3 occurs when we have raised a major and cannot make a game try because the enemy bid the touching lower suit. Condition 1, however, is not changed (both opponents must have acted).

1 S
?
X2 S3 H442

Dbl
3 S

game try
competitive

1 H
?
2 C2 H3 C443

Dbl
3 D
3 H


penalty
artificial game try
competitive

Cooperative Doubles

A cooperative double is a penalty suggestion at the 2 or 3 level. Doubler typically has 3+ cards in the suit doubled but not a trump stack.

The following doubles are cooperative:451
1. After eschewing a redouble or force-double
2. After partner redoubled or made a force-double
3. Balancing seat in front of the opponent who bid
4. Of a suit in which 4 cards were denied
5. After a competitive double at previous turn

1 H
P
X
2 D
P
X
1 Ncooperative

Note that failure to redouble does not limit responder’s strength but rules out a trump stack.

1 S
X
XR2 Hcooperative

1 D
P
P
P
1 S
X
2 Ccooperative

1 C
P
P
2 H
1 N
X
Xcooperative

1 C
X
X
P
P
1 H
2 C
1 S
2 S
cooperative

1 C
P
3 C
X
2 S
3 S
1 H
X
X
1 S
P
cooperative

After a cooperative double

Partner should usually remove a cooperative double with a singleton or void in the enemy suit, or with a shapely hand that is unsuitable for defense. Limit bidding principles apply.

Opener’s Competitive Rebids

After our 1-over-1 response, opener’s competitive rebids retain their usual meaning provided opener is not restricted because a cheaper bid in the same strain is eliminated by the interference. If opener is restricted, a nonjump bid that would otherwise be a jump may be shaded to compete. Jump shifts and cue-bids are GF.

1 H
?
P1 S2 Danalogous for similar auctions461

Dbl
2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H 4 S









penalty
unchanged
16-17, stopper, I
16-18, 4+ cards, NF
19+, nondescript, GF
unchanged
18-19, stopper, NF
19+, at least 5-5, F
19+, splinter raise
unchanged

1 C
?
P1 H2 Sanalogous for similar auctions462

Dbl
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H








penalty
18-19, stopper, I
14-18, 6+ clubs, NF
16-18, 4 diamonds, NF
14-16
19+, nondescript, GF
unchanged
natural, extreme shape, I
17+

When responder has passed

If a nonjump suit overcall is passed around to opener, no additional strength is required to reopen because partner may have trap-passed with a trump stack, hence his strength is not limited.

1 D
?
1 SPPanalogous for similar auctions463

Pass
Dbl
1 N
2 C 2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D 3 H







minimum, 3+ spades
takeout, usually 1 or 2 spades
18-19, stopper, NF
natural, NF
17+, natural, NF
19+, 6+ strong diamonds, F
16-19, stopper, 6+ diamonds, I
19+, natural, I

Any suit bid implies extreme shape or a spade void, else double is preferred.

If the opening bid is passed by partner and RHO balances, opener must tread with caution. All actions show extra strength, and no bids are forcing, except of course a cue-bid for 1 round only.

1 H
?
PPXanalogous for similar auctions464

Pass
Rdbl
1 N
1 S 2 C 2 D
2 H
2 N
2 S 3 C D H






13-18
18+, nondescript
18-19
16+, at least 6-4 or 5-5
16+, 6+ strong hearts
18-19, 6+ strong hearts
19+, natural, shapely

1 H
?
PP1 Sanalogous for similar auctions465

Dbl
2 S
Other


16+, takeout
19+, spade void, 3-suiter, F
same as #464

Competitive Limit Style

After our 1-over-1 response, the system dictates a “forcing style” without interference (or if the only interference is a takeout double) in that responder’s second-round jumps in previously bid suits and raises to 3 of a minor are GF. Once an opponent bids this reverts to a “limit style” where such bids are invitational, and a cue-bid is a general GF.

1 C
2 C
1 H
P
1 S
?
Panalogous for many auctions471

2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C









11+, 4+ diamonds (rare 3), F
13+, nondescript, GF
6-10, 6+ spades, NF
10-12, stopper, I
10-12, Q-x or better, I
13+, at least 5-5, GF
15+, splinter raise, GF
11-12, 6+ spades, I
13-16, stopper, NF
10-12, great fit, I

1 D
P
P
P
1 H
?
1 Sanalogous for many auctions472

Dbl
1 N
2 C
2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 D
4 H













9+, competitive
7-10, stopper, NF
11+, 4+ clubs (rare 3)
7-10, 3+ diamonds, NF
7-10, 6+ hearts
13+, nondescript, GF
11-12, stopper, I
13+, at least 5-5, GF
11-12, 4+ diamonds, I
11-12, 6+ hearts, I
16+, self-splinter, agrees hearts, GF
13-16, stopper, NF
11-12, great fit, I
13-16, 6+ strong hearts, NF

New minor forcing applies in competition, but alternative rebids follow the limit style.

1 C
1 N
P
P
1 H
?
1 Sanalogous for similar auctions473

2 C 2 H
2 D
2 S
2 N 3 C 3 H
3 D
3 S
3 N 4 H
4 C







natural, sign-off attempt
11+, AF, checkback
13+, nondescript, GF
natural, I
13+, at least 5-5, GF
16+, self-splinter, agrees hearts, GF
sign-off
11-12, extreme shape, I

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

Higher Opening Bids

Two Club Opening

An opening bid of 2 C is strong, artificial and forcing, typically 23+ points or within a trick of game in hand.

Responder must either categorize his HCP range or show a suit headed by K-Q or better.

2 CP?491

2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 suit
3 N
4 suit
4 N


 •
 •

 •

 •
0-4 HCP (no ace) or 8+ HCP or A+K
5-8 HCP or an ace (no A+K)
any 5 card suit, 2 of top 3
any 5 card suit, A-K-Q
6 cards, 2 of top 3
any 6 card suit, A-K-Q
7 cards, 2 of top 3
any 7 card suit, A-K-Q

Note that with exactly 8 HCP (lacking A+K) responder may bid 2 D or 2 H per judgment.

After two-diamond response

Responder is presumed to have 0-4 HCP for all rebids. With 8+ HCP (or ace + king) he bids the same as with 0-4 under game but must continue voluntarily past game to show it.

2 C
?
P2 DP492

2 H*
2 S 3 C 3 D
2 N
3 N
 •


 •
5+ hearts or 25+ HCP balanced
5+ cards, F
23-24, balanced, NF (system on)
6+ card minor, game in hand, NF

*forces 2 S (Kokish relay)

2 C
2 H
?
P
P
2 D
2 S
P
P
493

2 N
3 C 3 D 3 S
3 H 4 H
3 N



25+, balanced, GF (system on)
4+ cards, 5+ hearts, F
6+ hearts, NF
5-6 hearts, balanced or semi, NF

2 C
2 S
P
P
2 D
?
P494

2 N
3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S
4 C 4 D 4 H
4 S




waiting
5+ cards
3+ spades
splinter raise
2-4 HCP, 4+ spades, no side-suit control

2 C
2 S
?
P
P
2 D
2 N
P
P
495

3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S 4 S
3 N


4+ cards
6+ spades, NF
5-6 spades, balanced or semi, NF

2 C
3 C
P
P
2 D
?
P496

3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D 4 H 4 S


 •

waiting
5+ cards
5+ diamonds, NF
3+ clubs
splinter raise

2 C
3 D
P
P
2 D
?
P497

3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H 4 S
 •

 •


waiting
5+ spades
5+ hearts, NF
6+ clubs
3+ diamonds
splinter raise

After two-heart response

2 C
?
P2 HP498

2 S 3 C D H
2 N
3 N


5+ cards, GF
23+ HCP balanced, GF (system on)
6+ card minor, game in hand, NF

2 C
2 S
P
P
2 H
?
P499

2 N
3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S
4 C 4 D 4 H



waiting
5+ cards
3+ spades
splinter raise

2 C
3 C
P
P
2 H
?
P500

3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D 4 H 4 S


 •

waiting
5+ cards
5+ diamonds, NF
3+ clubs
splinter raise

2 C
3 D
P
P
2 H
?
P501

3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H 4 S 5 C
 •

 •


waiting
5+ spades
5+ hearts, NF
6+ clubs
3+ diamonds
splinter raise (must have 1 ace)

2 C
3 H
P
P
2 H
?
P502

3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H
4 S 5 C 5 D
 •
 •


waiting
5+ spades, NF
6+ cards
3+ hearts, NF
splinter raise (must have 1 ace)

After suit-showing response

2 C
?
P2 SP503

2 N
3 suit
3 N


23+ HCP balanced, GF (system on)
5+ cards
6+ card minor, game in hand, NF

If opener rebids in a suit, responder bids his suit at the 3 level if possible.

2 C
3 D
P
P
2 S
?
P504

3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D



my suit
no fit, my suit is clubs, NF
3+ diamonds, clubs are A-K or A-Q
3+ diamonds, clubs are K-Q

2 C
3 H
P
P
2 S
?
P505

3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H



my suit
no fit, my suit is a minor, NF
3+ hearts, suit is A-K or A-Q
3+ hearts, minor suit is K-Q, NF

2 C
3 S
P
P
2 S
?
P506

3 N
4 C 4 D 4 H
4 S


no fit, NF
3+ spades, suit is A-K or A-Q
3+ spades, suit is K-Q, NF

2 C
?
P3 CPanalogous for any suit response of 3 or 4507

Other suit
3 N
Raise


5+ cards, F below game
misfit, NF
F below game

2 C
?
P2 NPanalogous for 3 N or 4 N response508

Any suit*
Notrump*

fit or 5+ cards, F
natural, F

*Opener is presumed to know responder’s A-K-Q suit, and slam must be reached.

After interference

2 CX?509

Pass
Rdbl
Other


3+ clubs
4+ clubs (Q-10-x-x or better)
unchanged

2 C2 S?analogous for other overcalls510

Dbl
2 N
3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S



penalty (Q-10-x-x or better)
5+, stopper
5+ HCP, 5+ cards
5+ HCP, 3-suiter, short spades

2 C
?
2 SPPanalogous for other overcalls511

Dbl
2 N
3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S
3 N*
4 N*





penalty
23-24, balanced, NF
5+ cards, F
3-suiter, short spades
25-28, balanced, NF
29-30, balanced, NF

*if responder bids again, follow opening 2 N structure 1 or 2 levels higher.

All doubles by opener or responder are penalty, and all direct passes are forcing.

If opener bids an enemy shown suit that he could not double for penalty, it is natural (enemy bid was probably a psych).

If responder has not acted, a suit bid by opener below game is forcing, and the cheapest response is an artificial waiting bid.

Opener’s suit jumps

If 2 C opener jumps in a suit at his second turn (including an enemy shown suit that he could not double for penalty) it is natural and sets trumps.

If opener’s suit jump is:512
Below game
Game

F, partner should bid any control
NF, no slam opposite expected range

Note that previous use as a “specific ace ask” is now abolished, as any such hand should open 3 N.

Weak Two Bids

An opening bid of 2 D, 2 H or 2 S shows 5-10 HCP. Style is undisciplined but sensible. Good 5 cards suits (typically 3 of top 5 cards) are acceptable at any vulnerability, and decent 5 cards suits when nonvulnerable.

2 DP?analogous for 2 H or 2 S opening521

2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D 4 D 5 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 H 4 S 5 C






 •
12-17, 6+ cards (rare 5), NF
15+, AF
12-17, 6+ cards, NF
blocking, NF
self-sufficient suit, I
natural, NF
trump ask
sign-off

2 D
?
P2 NP*522

3 C
3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D




only 5 diamonds, AF
minimum
stopper in bid, max
no major stopper, max
natural, extreme shape

2 H
?
P2 NP*523

3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H






only 5 hearts, AF
average or max, AF
worst hand
4 spades
A-K-J-x-x-x or better
natural, at least 6-4
self-sufficient suit

2 S
?
P2 NP*524

3 H
3 S
Other


4 hearts
worst hand
analogous to #523

*If opponent doubles: 3 C = 5-carder with 4 clubs; pass (min) or redouble (max) = 5-carder without 4 clubs.

Rebids by responder

2 H
3 C
P
P
2 N
?
Panalogous for 2 S opening525

3 D
3 H 3 N
3 S 4 D
4 C
4 H 4 S 5 m



 •
AF, asks if min/max*
sign-off
5+ cards, F
trump ask
sign-off

*opener returns to his suit if minimum

2 H
3 D
P
P
2 N
?
Panalogous for 2 S opening526

3 H
3 S 4 D
3 N
4 C
4 H 4 S 5 m



 •
natural, I*
5+ cards, F
game sign-off, opener may bid 4 H
trump ask
sign-off

*opener passes with average, accepts with max

2 D
3 C
P
P
2 N
?
Psame as 3 D rebid less 3 D option527

3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H 4 S 5 m



 •

sign-off
5+ cards, F
sign-off
trump ask
good fit, I
sign-off

Competitive agreements

2 DX?analogous for 2 H or 2 S opening528

Pass*
Rdbl
New suit
Other



0+ (unlimited)
strong, creates force
natural, may be weak, NF
unchanged

*if followed by double below 3 N it is cooperative

2 H2 S?analogous for similar sequences529

Dbl
Cue
Other


penalty
control, ST
unchanged

2 H
?
P2 N3 Danalogous for similar sequences530

Pass
Dbl
Bid


minimum
reasonable defense
natural, offense oriented

Preemptive Openings

Opening suit bids of 3 C thru 5 D are weak, generally by the rule of 2, 3 or 4 per vulnerability.

3 CP?541

3 D 3 H 3 S
3 N*
4 C
4 D
4 H 4 S 5 C



 •
5+ cards, F
natural, NF
blocking
trump ask
sign-off

*opener may pull with no ace or king

3 DP?542

4 C
Other
 •
trump ask
analogous to #541

3 HP?543

3 S 4 D
3 N
4 C
4 H 4 S 5 m
5 H


 •

5+ cards, F
sign-off
trump ask
sign-off
blocking

3 SP?544

4 H
Other

6+ hearts, NF
analogous to #543

4 CP?545

4 D
4 H 4 S 5 m
 •
trump ask
sign-off

4 DP?same as 5 C or 5 D opening546

Any suit bidnatural, NF

4 HP?547

Any suit bid
5 H

natural, NF
slam I, trump concern

4 SP?548

Any suit bid
5 S

natural, NF
slam I, trump concern

Competitive agreements

3 CX?analogous for all preempts549

Rdbl
Other*

strong, creates force
natural, NF

3 C3 H?analogous for all preempts and overcalls550

Dbl
Cue
Other*


penalty
control, ST, creates force
natural, NF

*except 4 N and 5 N (see Slam Bidding)

Note that the 4 C or 4 D trump ask is off after any interference. All suit bids are natural.

Three Notrump Opening

An opening bid of 3 N is forcing, showing any self-sufficient suit with 9+ playing tricks. If suit is a minor, shape is usually extreme since 3 N is ruled out as a contract. Strength is typically 11-16 HCP but unlimited; many one-suiters usually opened 2 C are better opened 3 N.

3 NP?561

4 C
4 D
4 H 4 S
4 N
 •
 •

 •
exactly 1 ace, F
no aces (assumed) or 2 aces, F
7+ cards (strong 6), at most 1 ace, NF
3 aces, F to slam

3 N
?
P4 CP562

4 D
4 H 4 S
4 N
5 C 5 D
 •

 •
strength ask (slam possible)
sign-off
asks which ace (responder bids it)
sign-off

3 N
4 D
P
P
4 C
?
P563

4 H
4 S
4 N
5 C 5 D 5 H
 •
 •
 •
 •
nothing extra
something extra
much extra with S A
much extra with that ace

Opener then places contract or bids 4 N to ask which ace.

3 N
?
P4 DP564

4 H 4 S
4 N
5 C 5 D

 •
real suit, NF
strength ask* (slam possible if aceless)
real suit, NF

*3 steps: nothing, something, much

If responder has 2 aces, he must continue by bidding a non-ace suit to pinpoint locations. Opener then signs off without control in that suit, bids slam, or uses the cheapest available other bid as a 3-step strength ask.

3 N
?
P4 HPanalogous for 4 S response565

4 N
Suit

Blackwood (bid major key)
real suit, NF

Competitive agreements

3 NX?566

Pass*
Rdbl
Other


no ace, no likely tricks
1 ace + defensive strength
unchanged

*allows stopping in 4 C or 4 D if opener bids it

3 N4 H?analogous for any overcall567

Pass*
Dbl
Cheapest suit
Other suit
Cheapest NT
5 N jump





nondescript
trump stack, penalty
1 ace
natural, NF
2 aces, F
3 aces, F

*Opener must always to compete at 4 level but may elect not to risk 5 level.

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

Defense to One of Suit

After an enemy opening bid of 1 of a suit, immediate actions are summarized below.

1 C?571

Dbl
1 D 1 H 1 S
1 N*
Cue
Jump cue
DJ cue
Other suit jump
2 N
3 N
4 N









13+, takeout
10-18, 5+ cards
15-18, balanced, stopper
both majors
strong 1-suiter
both majors, extreme shape
weak
two lowest unbid
15-20, based on long suit
two lowest unbid, extreme shape

*Respond as to 1 N opening, including interference agreements if next opponent acts.

1 D?572

2 C
Other

13-18, 5+ cards
same as #571

1 H?573

2 C 2 D
Cue
DJ cue
Other



13-18, 5+ cards
spades + minor
spades + minor, extreme shape
same as #571

1 S?574

2 C 2 D 2 H
Other

13-18, 5+ cards
analogous to #573

Takeout Doubles

After an enemy opening bid of 1 of a suit, a takeout double shows 13-18 points with 3+ cards in each unbid suit, or 19+ points. With major-suit hopes it is permissible to have only a doubleton in an unbid minor.

1 CXP?581

1 D 1 H 1 S
1 N
Cue
2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N
Jump cue
3 D 3 H 3 S
3 N
DJ cue
4 D
4 H 4 S
5 D






 •


 •


0-9, 4+ cards (rare 3)
6-10, stopper
10+, F until raise or game
10-12, 5+ cards, I
10-12, 4+ cards, I
11-12, stopper, I
13+, splinter, 3-suiter, GF
6-9, 6+ cards, NF
13-16, stopper
10+, 5-5 majors
6-9, 7+ cards
13-16, 5+ cards
13-16, 7+ cards

1 DXP?582

2 C
3 C
4 C
Other



0-9, 5+ cards (rare 4)
10-12, 5+ cards, I
6-9, 7+ cards
same as #581

1 HXP?583

2 C 2 D
3 C 3 D
4 C 4 D
4 H
Other



 •
0-9, 4+ cards
10-12, 5+ cards, I
6-9, 7+ cards
10+, 5-5 minors
same as #581

1 SXP?584

2 H
3 H
4 S
Other


 •
0-9, 4+ cards
10-12, 4+ cards, I
10+, 5-5 minors
same as #581

Rebids by doubler

1 C
P
X
?
P1 Hanalogous for any forced response at 1 level585

1 S 2 D
1 N
Cue
2 H
2 S 3 D
2 N
Jump cue
3 H
3 S 4 D
3 N






 •


19+, 5+ cards, NF
18-20, stopper
21+, no rebid promised
16-18, 4+ cards
self-make, 6+ strong cards, NF
21-22, stopper
19+, splinter raise, game try
19-21, 4+ hearts, I
self-make, 6+ strong cards, NF
self-make

1 S
P
X
?
P2 Canalogous for any forced response at 2 level586

2 D 2 H
Cue
2 N
3 C
3 D 3 H 4 D
Jump cue





 •
19+, 5+ cards, NF
21+, no rebid promised
18-20, stopper
18-20, 4+ clubs
self-make, 6+ strong cards, NF
19+, splinter raise, game try

1 D
P
X
?
P1 Nanalogous for any suit opening587

2 C 2 H 2 S
Cue
3 C 3 H 3 S


5 cards, minimum double (to play)
shortness, I+, no rebid promised
5+ cards, GF

After a redouble

1 CXR?analogous for any suit opening588

Pass
Unbid suit
Other


no preference or 10+
weak (any level)
unchanged

Pass followed by a voluntary action shows 10-12 range.

After a bid

If our takeout double is followed by any bid below 2 N, including a new suit, 1 N or raise, the following agreements apply.

1 CX1 S?analogous for any suit opening and response below 2 N589

Dbl
Suit bid
Suit jump


responsive*
6-9
10+, I below game

*minor takeout if both minors unbid

Note that bidding RHO’s suit (1 C Dbl 1 H 2 H) is natural like any other. Only opener’s suit is a cue-bid.

After a major raise, responsive doubles are extended thru 3 S, which includes any enemy bid that shows a fit.

Suit Overcalls

After an enemy opening bid of 1 of a suit, a nonjump suit overcall shows 10-18 points (13-18 at 2 level) and a 5+ card suit. A strong 4 card suit may be bid at the 1 level with 13-18 points if no other action is appropriate.

1 C1 HP?analogous for any 1-level overcall601

1 S 2 D
1 N*
Cue**
2 H
2 S 3 D
2 N
Jump cue
3 H
3 S 4 D
3 N
DJ cue










8-12, 5+ cards, NF
8-11, stopper, NF
11+ if fit, 13+ if not
7-10, 3+ cards
12-14, 6+ cards, I
12-14, stopper, I
11+, 4+ hearts
weak (4-7), 4+ cards
12-14, 7+ cards, I
15-18, stopper
splinter, ST

*Subsequent cue is natural and NF (jump invit)
**Re-cue is forcing, natural if minor; major is general force (presumed) or natural (NF) if repeated or game

1 S2 DP?analogous for any 2-level overcall602

2 N
3 D
Jump suit
3 N
4 D
Other





9-11, stopper, I
7-10, 3+ cards
natural, F below game
12-15, stopper
weak (4-7), 4+ cards
same as #601

Rebids by overcaller

Unless forced or invited, overcaller generally should pass with 10-12; may act again with 13-15, and should act again with 16-18.

A second-round bid in opener’s minor is a cue-bid only if partner has acted; else natural showing a 2-suiter.

1 C
P
1 S
?
P2 Canalogous for cue response to any overcall603

Same suit
Below same
Above same


minimum, nondescript, NF
ambiguous, natural, F
accept, natural, F (below game)

After a negative double

1 C1 HX?analogous for any 1-level overcall604

Rdbl
Cue
2 N
Other



11+, implies no fit, creates force
11+, shows fit
8-10, 4+ card fit
unchanged

1 S2 DX?analogous for any 2-level overcall605

2 N
Other

unchanged
analogous to #604

After an enemy bid

If our nonjump suit overcall is followed by any bid below 2 N (including 1 N and new suits) the following agreements apply.

1 C1 S2 H?analogous for many auctions606

Dbl
Cue
Other


responsive*
11+, shows fit, stopper if choice of cues
unchanged

*implies doubleton support if only 1 unbid suit

After a major raise or any bid showing a major fit:607
Responsive doubles are extended thru 3 S

After a cue-bid of our overcall, double is:608
1. Responsive if unpassed hand and cue is not GF
2. Lead-directing if passed hand or cue is GF

Weak Jump Overcalls

After an enemy opening bid of 1 of a suit, all jumps in unbid suits are weak, generally by the rule of 2, 3 or 4 per vulnerability.

1 C2 HP?analogous for any 2-level jump overcall611

Cue
Other

asks for stopper
weak two-bid structure

Also use weak two-bid structure if RHO acts.

1 H3 DP?analogous for any 3-level jump overcall or 4 C612

Cue below 3 N
Other

asks for stopper
preemptive opening structure

Note that 4 C or 4 D trump ask still applies.

1 S4 HP?analogous for any 4 H or 4 S overcall613

Cue
Other

ST with control
preemptive opening structure

Two-Suited Overcalls

After an enemy opening bid of 1 of a suit, a cue-bid (Michaels) shows both majors over a minor, or the unbid major plus either minor over a major; an overcall of 2 N (unusual) shows the two lowest unbid suits. Shape is at least 5-5 (5-4 after cue of minor) and strength is either weak (5-11 HCP) or strong (16+ HCP). With in-between hands (12-15 HCP) overcall in one suit and bid the other.

1 C2 CP?621

2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N
Cue
3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 H 4 S







6+ cards, NF
preference
game or ST, F
asks for stopper
6+ cards, I
weak, 4+ cards
natural, NF
weak or to make

1 D2 DP?622

3 C
4 C
Other


6+ cards, NF
6+ cards, I
same as #621

1 H2 HP?623

2 S
3 C
3 D
4 C 4 D
Other




preference
pass or correct to 3 D
6+ cards, NF
6+ cards, I
same as #621

Note that only the cheapest club bid is “pass or correct.”

1 S2 SP?624

3 H
Other

preference
same as #623

1 D2 NP?analogous for any suit opening625

3 C 3 H
Cue
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 H 5 C




preference
asks for stopper
6+ cards, NF
natural, NF
weak or to make

Rebids by two-suited overcaller

1 C
P
2 C
?
P2 Nanalogous for 1 D 2 D626

3 C
3 D
3 H
3 S



longer hearts
longer spades
worst, 5-5
not worst, 5-5, F

1 H
P
2 H
?
P2 Nanalogous for 1 S 2 S627

3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S


worst, natural, NF
not worst, clubs
not worst, diamonds, F

1 H
P
2 N
?
P3 Hanalogous for any suit opening628

3 N
Cheapest real
Other


stopper (in cue)
worst
not worst

If two-suited overcaller bids again when not forced or invited:

1 D
P
2 D
?
P2 Hanalogous for similar auctions629

Shown suit
2 N 3 N
Cue
Other suit



weak range, extra shape, I
16+ HCP, stopper
16+ HCP, splinter
16+ HCP, 3 cards

1 H
P
2 H
?
3 HPanalogous for similar auctions630

Dbl
Other

16+ HCP, optional
analogous to #629

After a double

1 H2 HX?analogous for any two-suited overcall631

Pass
Rdbl
3 C
Other


 •
no clear preference
strong, creates force
6+ cards, NF
unchanged

After a bid

1 D2 D3 D?analogous for cases with both our suits known632

Dbl
Shown suit
Other suit
Cue
Cue past 3 N
Jump shown





penalty*
competitive, NF
6+ cards, NF
asks for stopper (below 3 N)
control, ST
I if below game

*lead directing if cue of our suit

1 H2 H3 H?analogous for cases with only one major known633

Shown major
Cheapest minor
Other


competitive, NF
competitive, pass or correct
analogous to #632

Three-Level Cue Overcall

After an enemy opening of 1 of a suit, a 3-level cue-bid as our side’s first action shows a 1-suited hand (not suit bid) with 9+ playing tricks and at most 1 loser in the long suit. Typically this is to seek a stopper for 3 N. If overcaller bids 4 H or 4 S next, he confirms a splinter in the cue-bid suit, else start with double.

1 C3 CP?641

3 D
3 H 3 S
3 N
4 C
4 D
4 H 4 S
4 N
 •


 •
 •

 •
no ace, no stopper
6+ cards, F
stopper
1 ace, no stopper
2 aces*
7+ cards, NF
king stopper + 1 ace, NF

1 D3 DP?642

4 C
4 D
5 C
Other
 •
 •
 •
no ace, no stopper
1 ace, no stopper
2 aces*
same as #641

1 H3 HP?analogous for 1 S 3 S643

Cue
Other
 •
2 aces*
analogous to #642

*Showing 2 aces overrides stopper showing, since suit game should be assured, and slam likely.

After interference

1 H3 HX?analogous for any opening644

Pass
Rdbl
Other*


no stopper, no values
ace in that suit
unchanged

*except cheapest minor shows at least a king, else pass

1 D3 D3 S?analogous for any 3-level bid645

Pass
Dbl
3 N
4 C
4 D
Other



 •
 •
weak
penalty (trump stack)
stopper in opener’s suit
1 ace, no stopper
2 aces
unchanged

1 H3 H4 H?analogous for any 4-level bid646

5 C
5 D
Other
 •
 •
1 ace, no stopper
2 aces
analogous to #645

Balancing Actions

If an enemy opening bid of 1 of a suit is passed:

1 DPP?analogous for all suit openings651

Dbl
1 H 1 S
1 N
2 C
Cue
Jump suit
2 N
Jump cue
3 N








11+, takeout
8-15, 5+ cards (rare 4)
11-15 (system on)
10-15, 5+ cards
two-suited overcall
6+ strong cards, 1 trick less than bid
19-21 (system on)
three-level cue overcall
16-21, based on long suit

After a balancing double or nonjump suit bid, respond as directly but increase all strength ranges by 2 points.

If opener bids again, responsive doubles do not apply.

1 D
P
P
?
P2 Sanalogous for all jump suit bids652

2 N 3 S
3 C 3 H
Cue


natural, I
natural, F
asks for stopper

After Two Enemy Bids

After an enemy opening bid of 1 of a suit and an enemy response, most actions are the same as immediately over the suit opened, in which case responding structures would be the same too. The following differences apply.

1 CP1 H?analogous for any suit response of 1661

2 H
2 N
3 H


13-18, 5+ good hearts
same as 2 C but more shape
same as 3 C but related to hearts

Respond to any of above with related structures.

1 SP2 D?analogous for any forcing response of 2662

2 H 3 C
Other

11+, 5+ good cards
analogous to #661

1 HP2 H?analogous for any raise thru 3 S663

Nonjump suit
Jump 3 suit
Jump 4 C 4 D
Cue 4 level



11+, 5+ good cards
6+ cards, 8 tricks, I
natural + lower unbid major
highest + other

Artificial responses

An artificial response is literally ignored. The meaning of our actions is based on the strain it showed.

1 CP1 H1?1. spades664

Dbl
1 S 2 H
2 C 2 N
2 S
3 C 3 S
3 D 3 H





takeout of clubs and spades
natural
hearts + diamonds
weak (rare)
3-level cue overcall
weak

Subsequent bidding

After a takeout double with two enemy suits shown:

1 C
P
P
?
1 SXanalogous for 1 D opening665

Any club bid
Other

natural
unchanged

Responsive doubles do not apply.

If two cue-bids are available, the one chosen shows a stopper.

Additional Agreements

After an enemy opening bid of 1 of a suit, the following structures (defined earlier) apply in full if the conditions are met:671
1. Major suit game tries
2. Competitive doubles
3. Cooperative doubles

Belated doubles

If opponents have made at least two bids but not all four suits and we have not acted, our second-round or later double is:672
Raised suit
Natural suit
1 N direct
1 N passout



takeout thru 4 D
takeout thru 2 S
takeout
takeout if both majors unbid

Otherwise a second-round or later double is penalty (implying previous trap pass) or lead-directing.

Passed hand changes

Any action by a passed hand keeps its normal shape context, but strength is limited by failure to open.

Exception: Direct 1 N overcall shows the two lowest unbid suits (at least 5-4).

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

Other Defensive Bidding

Defense to Notrump Openings

After an enemy 1 N opening bid, regardless of strength, a modified version of Astro is used.

1 N?691

Dbl
2 C
2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
Higher suit

 •


 •

16+ HCP, optional
hearts + any other
spades + any other
6+ cards
both majors or both minors
6+ cards
6+ strong cards, 1 trick shy of bid

Bids imply 9-15 HCP but flexible per shape and vul.

Two-suiters imply at least 5-4 shape (either way) but may be 4-4-4-1 (three suits).

With both majors bid 2 C with only 4 spades; 2 D with 5+ spades and 4+ hearts; or 2 N with at least 5-5 and decent game prospects.

1 NXP?692

Pass
Suit bid
2 N
Jump suit



5+ HCP or no 5+ card suit
weak, 5+ cards
any 2-suiter, F until raise or game
5-7 HCP, 6+ cards, I

1 N2 CP?693

Pass
2 D
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D 3 S
3 H






6+ clubs, misfit expected
not 3 hearts
3+ hearts
6+ spades
only force, game try
6+ cards, I
5-7 HCP, 4+ hearts, I

1 N2 DP?694

2 H
2 S
3 C
3 D 3 H
Other




not 3 spades
3+ spades
6+ clubs
6+ cards, I
analogous to #693

1 N2 Hany?analogous for 2 S overcall695

Anyweak two-bid structure

1 N2 NP?696

3 suit
3 N
4 C 4 D
4 H 4 S

 •

discouraging, assuming that genre
AF, asks definition and range*
I, assuming minors
to play, assuming majors

*lower real suit = minimum, higher = extras

If 2 N bidder has unassumed genre he must bid again; suit bids logical; 3 N (forcing) shows extras.

Rebids by Astro bidder

1 N
P
2 C
?
P2 D697

Pass
2 H
2 S
2 N
3 C
3 D
3 H 4 C 4 D


 •
 •


diamonds
5 hearts, 2nd suit black
3-4 spades, only 4 hearts, 4+ minor*
both minors (3 suits)
5+ clubs
5+ diamonds, I
6+ cards, I

*usually clubs but may be good 4=4=4=1

1 N
P
2 D
?
P2 H698

Pass
2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S 4 C 4 D




 •
hearts
5 spades, either minor
both minors (3 suits)
5+ cards
4 hearts, 5+ spades, I
6+ cards, I

1 N
P
2 C
?
P2 N699

3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D

 •
 •
 •
minimum, natural
minimum, 4 spades
extras, 3-4 spades
extras, clubs or diamonds
extras, natural, extreme shape

1 N
P
2 D
?
P2 N700

3 C 3 D 3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D

 •
 •
minimum, natural
extras, 4 hearts
extras, clubs or diamonds
extras, natural, extreme shape

Rebids by Astro responder

1 N
P
2 C
2 H
P
P
2 D
?
701

2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
 •
 •
3+ spades, seeking other suit
both minors, please choose
6+ cards, NF

1 N
P
2 D
2 S
P
P
2 H
?
702

3 H
Other

6+ cards, NF
same as #701

In balancing seat

If an enemy 1 N opening is followed by two passes, Astro structure still applies, but minimum strength is lowered.

1 NPP?703

Dbl
All bids

14+ HCP, optional
7-15 HCP

After interference

1 N2 CX?analogous for 2 D Astro704

Pass
Relay
Rdbl*
Other


 •
willing to play if second suit
unwilling to play minor doubled
5+ cards in relay suit
unchanged

*allows Astro bidder a rescue there with 2-3 cards

1 N
P
2 D
?
XP705

Rdbl
Other
 •
4315 shape (allows rescue to 2 H)
logical

1 N2 C2 S?analogous for other bids706

Dbl
2 N
Known suit
Cheapest suit
Other suit
Cue
Cue past 3 N
Jump suit







penalty
unchanged
competitive
pass or correct
6+ cards, NF
asks for stopper (below 3 N)
control, ST (known fit)
6+ cards, I below game

1 N2 NX?707

Pass
Rdbl
3 suit
Other


 •
weak (normal)
at least 1 ace
1-suited rescue (misfit expected)
unchanged

1 N2 N3 D?analogous for other bids708

Dbl
3 suit
Other


penalty (assumes opposite genre)
competitive, NF, fit exists somewhere
unchanged

Other Astro applications

Astro also applies, direct or balancing, in the following situations provided no specific suit has been shown:709
1. 2 N or 3 N opening
2. 1 N, 2 N or 3 N response to artificial opening
3. 1 N, 2 N or 3 N rebid after two artificial bids

Cases 1 and 2 suggest great shape, few HCP. Case 3 shows full HCP from failure to act previously.

Note that bidding 3 N over 2 N, or 4 N over 3 N, still shows majors or minors, albeit unlikely.

Unusual 2 N opening

2 N1?1. both minors710

Dbl
3 C
3 D


strength-showing
majors, weak or strong
majors, in-between (12-15 HCP)

Defense to Weak Openings

The following agreements apply when an opponent opens with a natural, nonforcing suit bid from 2 C thru 5 D, regardless of the strength shown by opener.

2 C?analogous for 2 D opening721

Dbl
Unbid suit
2 N
Cue
3 N*
Jump cue
4 other minor
Jump suit
4 N





 •
 •

13+, takeout
13-18, 6+ (good 5) cards
16-18 (system on)
three-level cue overcall
15-20, usually based on long suit
spades + other
natural + hearts, NF
natural, 1 trick shy of bid
two lowest unbid

*Responses to 3 N are natural (no transfers). Minor suits forcing; majors nonforcing. Cue-bid shows shortness in their suit with slam interest.

2 H?analogous for 2 S opening722

4 C 4 D
Jump cue
Other
 •

natural + unbid major, NF
unbid major + minor
same as #721

3 C?analogous for 3 D opening723

Dbl
Unbid suit
3 N
Cue
4 D over 3 C
4 N
Jump suit



 •
 •

14+, takeout
13-18, 6+ (good 5) cards
15-20, varied (natural responses)
spades + other
diamonds + hearts
two lowest unbid
natural, 1 trick shy of bid

3 H?analogous for 3 S opening724

Cue
Other

other major + minor
same as #723

4 C?analogous for 4 D opening725

Dbl
Cue
Other


15+, takeout
spades + other, slam I
same as #723

4 H?analogous for 4 S 5 C 5 D openings726

Dbl
Unbid suit
4 N over 4 H
4 N over 4 S
Cue



 •
15+, optional*
13-20, 6+ cards
minors
any 2-suiter, rarely 3-suiter with void
highest unbid + another, slam I+

*Usually pull with 6+ suit (5+ spades) or 5-5.

Responding agreements

2 HXP?analogous for all natural 2-bids727

2 S
2 N
3 C 3 D
3 H
3 S
3 N
Jump cue






0-8
Lebensohl, relay to 3 C
9-11, I
12+, usually no stopper, GF
9-11, 5+ spades, I
10-15, confident stopper
12+, splinter, 3-suiter

2 H
P
X
3 C
P
P
2 N
?
analogous for all Lebensohl cases728

3 D or pass
3 H
3 S
3 N
4 C 4 D




0-8, respective minor
4 spades, heart stopper, GF
9-11, 4 spades, I
10-15, tentative, not 4 spades
shapely, I

2 D2 HP?analogous for all overcalls thru 3 S729

Unbid suit
2 N
Cue
Raise
Cue past 3 N
Jump suit
Jump raise
Jump cue







8+, 5+ cards, F below game
8-10, natural
10+, general force (below 3 N)
8-10 below game, 8-15 if game
13+, fit + control
self-playable, slam I
11-15 if game
13+, splinter raise

Competitive agreements

2 HX3 H?analogous for all takeout doubles730

Dbl
Unbid suit
Other


penalty
6-9 below game, 6-15 if game
unchanged

2 D2 S3 D?analogous for all overcalls731

Dbl
Other

penalty
unchanged

Responsive doubles do not apply after weak openings.

2 SP3 C?analogous for similar auctions732

Anyas over opening bid*

*except only cue is opener’s suit. Bidding responder’s suit is natural and may expose a psych.

In balancing seat

2 HPP?analogous for higher suit openings733

Anysame but all ranges 2 points less

For example, 2 N would show 14-16 instead of 16-18.

Responding structure is the same (including Lebensohl after double) with ranges upped by 2 points.

Defense to Artificial Openings

Over a strong (16+) artificial 1 C, 1 D, 2 C or 2 D opening, all initial actions show weak hands, typically 5-11 HCP.

1 C1?1. 16+, artificial741

Pass*
Dbl
1 suit
1 N
2 C
2 D
2 H 2 S
2 N
3+ suit



 •
 •
 •

 •
unlimited
clubs
natural
majors or minors
hearts + any other
spades + any other
natural
majors or minors
natural

*With a good hand, compete next round as if all artificial bids did not exist; e.g., 1 C P 1 D P; 1 N 2 C is Astro.

With both majors follow Astro rules regarding shape.

Choice between 1 N and 2 N is simply a matter of safety vs. preemption.

After a 2 C opening everything is the same but one level higher.

After a strong, artificial 1 D or 2 D, only change is that double = diamonds.

The same structure applies after a response to the forcing opening (thru 2 N) provided no specific suit has been shown; double shows the suit doubled, or both majors if the response is 1 N or 2 N.

Responses

If our bid shows a 2-suiter, follow the Astro structure for all responses and rebids.

Otherwise, all suit responses (including jumps) are natural and NF, usually weak. A response of 1 N or 2 N (cheapest available) is the only force, like an invitational cue-bid; 3 N is always NF to play.

Defense to Transfer Bids

If the enemy opening bid is artificial but shows one specified suit (transfer preempts, Namyats) the following agreements apply.

3 D1?analogous for other openings
1. hearts
751

Pass
Dbl
Other


unlimited
11+, takeout of real suit
as if real suit were bid

Pass and double can be further defined next round:752
Pass then dbl
Dbl then dbl

15+, optional
15+, takeout

Transfer responses

If the enemy opening is 1 N, 2 N or 3 N, and the response is artificial showing one specified suit (Jacoby, minor-suit transfer, Texas) the following agreements apply.

1 NP2 H1?analogous for other responses
1. spades
753

Pass*
Dbl*
Cue 2 level
Nonjump suit
Cue 3 level
Jump 3 suit
Jump 4 C 4 D
Cue 4 level







unlimited
lead-directing
two-suited overcall
11+, 5+ good cards
three-level cue overcall
6+ cards, 8 tricks, I
natural + lower unshown major
highest unshown + other

*Subsequent double of enemy real suit is takeout thru 4 D (assuming partner only passed).

Junkyard Defense

This applies to opening two-bids that do not show 5+ cards in the suit bid, nor a specific one-suited hand.

Current list includes:761
1. Flannery 2 D (5+ hearts, 4 spades)
2. Roman 2 C 2 D (3 unknown suits)
3. Precision 2 D 2 H (3 known suits)
4. Meckwell 2 H (3 suits, 2 of which known)
5. Meckwell 2 S (weak preempt any suit)
6. Multi 2 D (unknown major)

Note that Flannery 2 H (not included) would be treated as a natural two-bid.

2 D1?1. on junk list762

Dbl
Cue 2 level
Cue 3 level
Cue 4 level
Suit
2 N
Jump suit
3 N







15+ HCP, nondescript
two-suited overcall
three-level cue overcall
highest + other
13-18, 6+ (good 5) cards
15-18, usually 5+ minor (system on)
6+ strong cards, 1 trick shy of bid
15-20, usually long suit (natural responses)

Pass then double a natural suit thru 4 D is takeout.

After enemy response

2 D1P2 N?1. on junk list763

Anysame as #762

2 D1P2 H2?1. on junk list
2. NF
764

Dbl
Other

takeout thru 4 D
same as #762

Note: A suit is a “cue-bid” if a nonforcing response (as above) or if opener showed 5+ cards in the suit.

Lead-Directing Doubles

Doubles of artificial suit bids are lead-directing unless otherwise defined or one of the exceptions below.

Double by an unpassed hand of:771
1. 2 C response to weak 1 N* is strength-showing
2. Artificial response (thru 3 D) to a natural suit opening is takeout of the suit opened
3. Splinter bid as our first action shows length and suggests sacrifice

*defined as 15 HCP maximum

Double of notrump

Unless otherwise defined, the double of a notrump bid by non-leader is penalty and requests, in order of priority:772
1. Leader’s suit if both of us have shown suits
2. Dummy’s suit unless leader has strong safe lead
3. Leader’s shown suit
4. Doubler’s shown suit
5. Leader’s weaker major

Double of suit slam

Double of a voluntarily bid suit slam by non-leader requests, in order of priority:773
1. Side suit shown by the opponents
2. Leader’s longest suit not bid by our side

Runout Defense

This applies if an opponent is the first to run after our strength-showing double in the following situations:781
1. Double of any notrump bid where Astro applies
2. Double of 2 C response to weak 1 N opening
3. Double of junkyard bid or 2 N response to it
4. Double of unusual 2 N opening

1 NX2 C1?analogous for any runout
1. clubs + other
782

Pass
Double
Suit
Jump suit
Cue




weak or 3+ cards in runout
takeout of runout, usually doubleton
5+ cards, NF
6+ cards, I
shortness in runout

“Runout” is defined as the actual suit bid, unless it showed another specified suit and not 4 cards in the bid suit, then the specified suit.

1 N
P
X
?
2 H1Panalogous for any runout
1. both majors
783

Pass
Other

3+ cards in runout*
same as #782

*inferring weakness from partner’s pass

1 N
2 D
X
?
PPanalogous for any runout784

Pass
Other

3+ cards in runout
same as #782

1 N
2 D
X
P
P
P
P
?
analogous for any runout785

Pass
Other

weak
same as #782

Runout defense applies thru 4 D and after multiple runouts, provided we have only passed after the first runout and not passed the same suit twice. In other words, if we bid, double for takeout, or one of us meets a suit he passed at a lower level, all doubles are penalty.

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

Slam Bidding Methods

General Approach

Most slam auctions begin with suit agreement, which can occur in four ways, all agreeing the suit bid or the last shown suit:801
1. Raise, including artificial fit-showing bids
2. Preference, even if not ensuring an 8+ fit
3. Splinter bid, including self-splinters*
4. Advance control-bid

*but excluding pattern splinters to show a 3-suiter or the remaining shape of a 2-suiter

After suit agreement in a strong auction (game tries nonexistent) our next bid has the following meaning:802
Notrump
Shown suit
Enemy suit
Unshown suit



natural (except 4 N if Blackwood)
natural
ace or shortness
control-showing*

*except after a preference that did not show normal support, then natural; e.g., 1 S 1 N; 3 H 3 S; 4 C = 3-4 clubs, and 5 C or 6 C is a potential contract.

Note that two suits can be agreed, but that’s the limit if it happens; a bid in either remaining suit is control-showing.

Control-showing auctions

A control-showing auction can be started only after suit agreement. Typically this requires about an ace better than a minimum GF, or suitable values if suit agreement was issued by a splinter or advance control-bid.

Once a control-showing auction is started, bids mean the following:803
Notrump*
Agreed suit
Other suit


natural, discouraging
natural, discouraging
control-bid (even if shown by our side)

*excluding 4 N if Blackwood and 5 N

A control-bid below game (after control-auction started) does not require extra strength (just suitable values).

Control-bids

Guidelines for the first control-bid in a suit:804
Unshown of 3
Unshown of 2
Only unshown
Enemy shown
Splinter suit
Partner’s shown
Your shown






ace or king, 4+ cards (rare 3)
ace or king* or shortness
ace or shortness
ace or shortness
ace or void
ace or king
ace

*with ace in one suit and king in the other, prefer to show the king below game

Bypassing a suit does not deny that control, i.e., it may be planned to show a more useful control or to save bidding space at next turn.

If beyond the game level of the highest agreed suit, a control-bid shows first-round control.

A control-bid past five of the highest agreed suit confirms all suits are controlled and that a grand slam is possible.

A second control-bid in the same suit (or a redouble if our control-bid is doubled) shows:805
1. Ace or void if prior bid could be shortness
2. Ace or king if prior bid showed ace or king
3. King or shortness if prior bid showed ace

Gerber

A bid of 4 C is Gerber only as an immediate response to 1 N or 2 N when “system on” applies. This holds with or without interference; so if it is possible to respond 4 C, it is Gerber.

Gerber does not apply after Stayman, notrump rebids, or anywhere else.

Responses to Gerber:811
4 D
4 H
4 S
4 N



0 or 4 aces
1 ace
2 aces
3 aces

Continuations by Gerber bidder:812
5 C
Other

asks for kings*, confirms all 4 aces
sign-off

*respond as above but 1 level higher.

Over interference

If Gerber 4 C is doubled:813
Pass*
Other
 •
 •
no club control
as usual with club control

*Asker may redouble to ask again for aces.

DOPI if an opponent bids below 5 N:814
Dbl
Pass
Cheapest bid
Next bid



0 or 4 aces
1 ace
2 aces
3 aces

DEPO if an opponent bids 5 N or beyond:815
Dbl
Pass

0, 2 or 4 aces
1 or 3 aces

Four Notrump Meanings

Four notrump is natural if no major suit is agreed and we have bid notrump naturally.

The following notrump bids are not considered natural:821
1. Forcing 1 N response to a major opening
2. Responder’s 2 N rebid after opener’s reverse bid
3. Responder’s 2 N waiting after a 2 C opening

1 S
3 H
P
P
2 N
4 N
Pnatural

Despite both majors bid, neither is agreed.

1 N
2 S
4 D
P
P
P
2 H
3 D
4 N
P
P
natural

Takeout 4 N

If partner has not acted, 4 N is always for takeout.

If partner has acted, 4 N is takeout if all of the following are true:822
1. You have not previously acted
2. Partner has bid or doubled at cheapest level
3. Last bid is 4 H or 4 S by an opponent
4. At least two unbid suits exist not counting spades

1 D4 S4 Ntakeout

But if opponent bid 4 H, it would be Blackwood.

1 H1 S4 H4 Ntakeout

But if partner bid 2 S, it would be Blackwood.

Blackwood

If 4 N does not meet either the natural or takeout conditions, it is Blackwood.

Key suit determination

When 4 N is Blackwood there is always one key suit, per this priority:831
1. Agreed suit, higher if two
2. Last shown suit, higher if simultaneous
3. Highest implied suit

1 H2 NP4 Ndiamonds key (higher of simultaneous)

1 SX3 S4 Nhearts key (highest implied)

Key-card responses

Standard Roman key-card steps:832
5 C
5 D
5 H
5 S*



0 or 3 key cards
1 or 4 key cards
2 or 5 key cards
2 or 5 key cards, QOEL

*not allowed with key suit hearts

Continuations

Blackwood bidder may next sign off in 5 of any agreed suit (or shown suit if key suit was inferred without an explicit raise), any shown suit beyond 5 of agreed suit, or 6 N. Exception: If Blackwood responder has 4 or 5 key cards, there are no sign-offs at the 5 level.

Non-sign-off bids by Blackwood bidder:833
Cheapest suit
Other suit
5 N


QOEL ask
relay to play 5 N (rare)
king ask, confirms 5 key cards + QOEL

Responses to QOEL ask:834
Key suit
Other suit
5 N


denies QOEL
QOEL, that king
QOEL, asking suit king*

*or no king if key suit sign-off is at 6 level

Responses to 5 N specific king ask:835
Key suit
Other suit
6 N
7 any



no king
that king
two kings, doubts about seven
natural, source of tricks, NF

Continuations after QOEL or 5 N ask:836
Unshown suit
Other

grand ST, nonspecific
sign-off

Showing a void

A void may be shown (optional) over Blackwood:837
5 N
6 of suit*

2 key cards + void
1 or 3 key cards + void

*If below key suit shows void (or specific king if void is obvious).

After 5 N asker may continue with 6 C (if not key suit) to inquire similarly.

Exclusion Blackwood

Five of a suit is exclusion Blackwood if and only if:838
1. Jump bid in opponent’s shown suit
2. Jump bid in unshown suit after we’ve shown a fit
3. Repeat of splinter suit by splinter bidder

Normal step responses apply but not counting the ace of the exclusion bid.

Over interference

If an opponent doubles 4 N:839
Rdbl
Pass
Other


0 or 3 key cards, desire to play 4 N
1 or 4 key cards, desire to play 4 N
unchanged

DOPI if an opponent bids below 6 of key suit:840
Dbl
Pass
Cheapest bid
Next bid*



0 or 3 key cards
1 or 4 key cards
2 or 5 key cards
2 or 5 key cards, QOEL

*not allowed if cheapest bid is key suit

DEPO if an opponent bids 6 of key suit or beyond:841
Dbl
Pass

0, 2 or 4 key cards
1, 3 or 5 key cards

Super Gerber

Super Gerber is a way to ask for key cards with 4 H or 4 S when 4 N would be inconvenient or natural.

Four of the highest unshown major is super Gerber provided all of the following are true:851
1. We opened 1 C, 1 D, 1 H, 1 S, 1 N, 2 C or 2 N
2. We did not make a weak jump shift response
3. No opponent has bid (double is not a bid)
4. We have shown at least one minor suit
5. We have not raised or agreed a major suit

1 D
4 S
P3 NPsuper Gerber

Note the rule prevails over possible natural interpretation.

Corollary: When super Gerber applies, 4 N is natural.

1 S
3 C
P
P
2 D
4 N
Pslam I (4 H would be super Gerber)

“Shown” suits are generally obvious, but some gray areas exist.

The following are considered shown suits:852
1. Value jump after 1 N forcing response
2. Opener’s rebid after inverted minor raise
3. Opener’s major rebid after minor-suit Stayman
4. Fit-implying rebid by notrump bidder unless the only unbid major

1 D
2 S
3 N
P
P
P
2 D
3 H
4 H
P
P
super Gerber (heart suit not shown)

Key suit determination

Super Gerber always has a key minor suit:853
1. Agreed minor, diamonds if both
2. Last shown minor

Key-card responses

Standard Roman key-card steps:854
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4*



0 or 3 key cards
1 or 4 key cards
2 or 5 key cards
2 or 5 key cards, QOEL

*not allowed if Step 3 is key suit

Super Gerber bidder may then sign off in 4 N, 6 N, or 5-7 of any shown suit.

Continuations by super Gerber bidder:855
Asking major
Unshown suit*
5 N


king ask, confirms 5 KC + QOEL
QOEL ask
choice of slam, F

*If responder holds 4 or 5 key cards, this can be an agreed or shown suit, since asker could not wish to sign off.

Responses to QOEL ask:856
Key suit
5 N
Other suit


denies QOEL
QOEL, no king or opted not to show*
QOEL, that king

*showing a king beyond 6 of key suit is discretionary

Responses to specific king ask:857
Key suit
5 N
Other suit
6 N
7 any




no king
king in asking major
that king
two kings, doubts about seven
natural, source of tricks, NF

Continuations after QOEL or specific king ask:858
Unshown suit*
Other

grand ST, nonspecific
sign-off

*if beyond 6 of key suit rejection is 6 N

Over interference

If super Gerber is doubled:859
Pass*
Other
 •
 •
no control in major doubled
as usual with control in major doubled

*Asker may redouble to ask again for key cards.

DOPI if an opponent bids below 6 of key suit:860
Dbl
Pass
Cheapest bid
Next bid*



0 or 3 key cards
1 or 4 key cards
2 or 5 key cards
2 or 5 key cards, QOEL

*not allowed if cheapest bid is key suit

DEPO if an opponent bids 6 of key suit or beyond:861
Dbl
Pass

0, 2 or 4 key cards
1, 3 or 5 key cards

Trump Asking Bid

The following bids are trump asks:871
4 C resp to 2 D, 2 H or 2 S when 2 N is artif force
4 C rebid by 2 N (AF) responder to 2 D, 2 H or 2 S
4 C resp to 3 D, 3 H or 3 S opening or jump overcall
4 D resp to 3 C or 4 C opening or jump overcall

Exception: If RHO doubles or bids over partner’s last bid, trump ask must be a jump (else natural NF).

2 HP4 Ctrump ask

2 D
3 H
P
P
2 N
4 C
Ptrump ask

1 N2 SP4 Ctrump ask

3 CP4 Dtrump ask

3 SX4 Cnatural NF

1 S3 H3 S4 Cnatural NF

Responses and follow-ups

Responses are by steps, skipping the trump suit:872
Trump suit
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4




worst
ace or king
A-Q or K-Q
A-K
A-K-Q

Continuations by asker:873
4 N
Other

Blackwood (regular key-card)
sign-off

Over interference

3 H
?
P4 CXanalogous for double of any trump ask874

Pass
Rdbl
Other


ace or king, terrible hand
ace or king, splinter in suit doubled
unchanged

3 H
?
P4 C4 Sanalogous for any bid over any trump ask875

Dbl
Pass
Cheapest bid
Next bid
Next




worst
ace or king
A-Q or K-Q
A-K
A-K-Q

Essentially this DOPI with all bids counted as steps.

Voluntary Bid of Five

A voluntary bid of 5 in a major invites slam:881
1. If we have not made a weak bid, or
2. If we are at 4 H or 4 S with no enemy action, or
3. On the second round of bidding or later

1 S4 H5 Sslam I

4 HP5 Hslam I

Note that 5 H would be blocking if opening were 2 H or 3 H, or if next hand bid or doubled.

A jump to 5 in a minor invites slam:882
only if a bid of 4 would be natural and forcing

1 S
3 C
P
P
2 H
5 C
Pslam I

Continuations

The slam invitation asks for, in order of priority:883
1. Unshown suit control if we have shown 3 suits
2. Enemy suit control if not already shown
3. Good trumps relative to the bidding

If the bid asks for control:884
Pass
5 N
6 trump suit
Other suit



no control
guarded king
control, usually singleton
control-bid, ace or void in asked suit

If the bid asks about trumps:885
Pass
5 N
6 trump suit
Other suit



poor trumps
solid trumps (A-K-Q or no loser)
good trumps
ace or void, good trumps (2 of top 3)

Five Notrump Meanings

Five notrump, when not part of another convention, can have four meanings: takeout, invitation to 7 N, trump ask (GSF) or “pick a slam.” In all cases it is forcing.

Takeout 5 N

Five notrump is for takeout, asking lower suits first:891
1. If partner has not acted, or
2. If a nonjump on the first round of bidding

3 H3 S5 H5 Ntakeout for minors

Invitation to 7 N

Five notrump invites 7 N if we have shown a balanced hand and no specific suit has been shown:892

2 C
2 N
P
P
2 D
5 N
Pinvitation to 7 N

Opener may bid 6 of a suit (forcing) to suggest 7 in that suit. Bidding cannot end below 6 N.

Trump ask

Five notrump is a trump ask if:893
1. A major suit (and no other suit) is agreed, or
2. Our only shown suit is a 5+ card major by partner*

*excluding the first-round nonjump takeout case

Responses are by steps, skipping the trump suit:894
6 C
6 D
6 trump suit
6 other major
6 N




ace or king
A-Q or K-Q
worst
A-K
A-K-Q

Pick a Slam

In all other cases, 5 N asks partner to choose a slam:895
1. If two or more suits shown, between those suits
2. If only one suit shown, show another suit (if any)

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

Defensive Carding

Notrump Opening Leads

Honor leads:911
A K Q 10 x, A K J 10 x, A K J x x x (or better)
A K Q x, A K J x, A K 10 x, K Q J x, K Q 10 x
K Q 10 9 x, A Q J x, Q J 10 x, Q J 9 x
A J 10 x, K J 10 x, J 10 9 x, J 10 8 x
A Q 10 9, A 10 9, K 10 9, Q 10 9, 10 9 8 x, 10 9 7 x
Doubleton or tripleton A K, K Q, Q J, J 10, 10 9

Spot leads:912
A J x x x, K 9 8 7 x, Q J x x, J 10 x x, etc.
x x x x (optional depending on hand)
A x x, K x x, Q x x, J x x, 10 x x
9 x x* (or weaker), x x (any doubleton)

*Lead low if partner showed 5+ cards (including suspect third/fourth major openings) and you have not raised.

Suit Opening Leads

Honor leads:921
A K x* (thru 4 S), A K x (above 4 S), K Q x
Q J 10 x, Q J 9 x, K J 10 x, J 10 9 x, J 10 8 x
K 10 9, Q 10 9, 10 9 8 x, 10 9 7 x
Doubleton or tripleton A K, K Q, Q J, J 10, 10 9

*except in partner’s suit always lead king from A-K

Spot leads (3+ cards):922
Lowest from odd lengths
Second* or third from even lengths

*If affordable, which is always presumed true in partner’s shown suit. For blind leads from four cards, lead second if you have a touching card (J 9 8 2, 8 7 4 2) or if the six or lower (Q 6 4 2); else prefer third (Q 7 4 2).

The purpose of second-best is to allow suit preference on the next round.

Leads After Trick One

Second honor lead in the same suit:931
Short holding
4+ cards

top card*
bottom of sequence

*warns partner not to overtake or unblock

Second lead in the same suit, spot card:932
Odd residue
Even residue

lowest
highest affordable

Exception: At notrump lead original fourth best if there could be any ambiguity.

Honor leads in another suit:933
Ace
King
Queen
Jack
Ten
Nine





denies king
unchanged
unchanged
J 10 (denies higher)
A J 10, K J 10, A 10 9, K 10 9, Q 10 9
10 9 (except doubleton)

Exceptions occur for technical necessity, such as from K-J-9 thru dummy’s Q-x-x.

Note that a 10 lead promises a top honor unless doubleton.

Spot leads in another suit at notrump:934
Fourth best
High or second

encourages return of suit
discourages return of suit

From 9-x-x with the 10 not in view, lead middle to avoid confusion with showing the 10.

Spot leads in another suit at suit contracts are unchanged (low from odd, second or third from even) regardless of strength.

Exception: Do not lead a nine (e.g., K-J-9-x) if it could be confused with showing 10-9-x-(x).

Honor Signals

Honor signals (following or discarding) are standard showing strength:941
Ace (discard)
King
Queen
Jack
Ten




solid suit
solid except ace
A Q J;Q J (usually 10 too)
A J 10, K J 10;J 10*
A Q 10, A 10 9, K 10 9, Q 10 9;10 9*

*ambiguous so avoid if partner would expect better

When splitting honors as second hand, play as above if intention is to inform partner.

Exception: Second-hand hop with a king shows nothing in particular (just like winning an ace) because it may be necessary to gain the lead.

Count Signals

General strategy against all contracts is to show count, both in following suit and discarding, regardless of who led the suit. Tend to discard first from the suit(s) you do not want led; hence partner can infer positive attitude from a suit not discarded, or discarded last.

Standard count signals:951
3, 5, 7 cards
4 or 8 cards
2 or 6 cards


lowest
second highest (if affordable)
highest affordable

The distinct plays from even lengths can be helpful, e.g., if partner sees the highest outstanding card he knows you have a doubleton or 6.

Tens and jacks may also be count signals, provided the play is safe and won’t be confused with strength-showing.

Queens and higher are never count signals.

Modifications and exceptions

Notrump opening leads with special requests:952
Ace
King
Queen
Jack



unblock K, Q or J, else count
attitude
unblock jack, hop ace, else attitude
unblock 10, hop ace or king, else count

Regardless of the lead at notrump, if dummy wins a blank ace, king or queen, signal attitude.

Other leads with special requests:953
Ace not A-K*attitude

*Beyond 4 S, after trick one, or with king in dummy

Residual count

If count is not shown on the first round of a suit, either because an honor had to be played, or because another signal had priority, count is shown on the second round:954
Odd residue
Even residue

lowest
highest affordable

Note that an odd residue indicates an original even number of cards, and vice versa.

Suit Preference Signals

Suit preference is routinely shown after count with the next play in the same suit.

Assume the underlined card was played first:961
6 4 2
10 6 4 3
Q 9 7 5 2
9 8 7 6 3 2



6 shows high SP, 4 shows low
4 shows high SP, 3 shows low
9 shows high SP, 5 shows low
8 shows high SP, 2 shows low

Suit preference may be negligible, since you must go one way or the other with 3-4 cards. Neutral possibilities exist with 5+ cards, but readability is doubtful, so general strategy should be to choose.

Overriding cases

Suit preference applies immediately if:962
1. Opening lead is partner’s shown 5+ card suit*
2. Opening lead is dummy’s singleton at suit bid and leader wins trick
3. Ace lead at suit bid with K-x or K-Q-x in dummy and third hand marked with 3+ cards
4. Opening lead is obvious singleton and third hand has choice of plays
5. Leading or following to suit partner may ruff
6. Removing declarer’s last stopper at notrump
7. Choice of insignificant cards in suit declarer is out of (or will be on trick)

*Suit preference is strong if leader wins the trick, i.e., an immediate shift is usually desired.

A jack is defined as low suit preference if leader could have the queen and need to force second hand to cover.

In the above seven cases a middle card shows no preference but may have other implications:963
Case 1
Case 2-3
Case 4-5
Case 6-7



Continue my suit
Continue suit led or shift to trumps
My entry may be in trumps
No preference or nondisclosure

Trump Signal

The only trump signal is traditional to show the number of trumps held. This is routine and does not imply the ability to ruff.

To inform partner of your trump length:971
2 or 4 trumps
3 or 5 trumps

up-the-line
high-low (if affordable)

Exception: Do not high-low with A-x-x or K-x-x.

When echoing from equal trumps, play the higher card first. This may reveal to partner whether your trump holding is promotable.

System Notes 7G01   MainTop   Pavlicek System

© 2023 Richard Pavlicek